Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Courses, seminars or workshops in which [teachers] participate on the job (Anderson, 2004: 111)., The process by which teachers engage in further education or training to refresh or upgrade their professional knowledge, skills and practices in the course of their employment (ILO, 2012: 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although in-service teacher training is beginning to acquire a degree of legitimacy, it still faces a number of diffi culties, notably as a result of the nature of the job, which requires that theory and practice be closely intertwined. Thus, the main problem in implementing teacher training programmes lies in the organization and supervision of classroom practices (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 44).

  • DEFINITION

    Inclusion is basically ensuring that every child, adolescent and youth is taken into consideration equally by the education system. It is about guaranteeing fair and quality learning conditions, processes and outcomes for all (Opertti, 2017: 15).

    Opertti, Renato. 15 clues to support the Education 2030 Agenda. Current and critical issues in the curriculum 14. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Inclusive education does not mean dividing and separating students based on their “abilities”, nor physically integrating them into schools without adapting the infrastructure, curriculum, pedagogy and teacher roles. The focus should in fact be on the characteristics of each individual and how each person can learn more and better by being part of a collective learning space with peers and teachers (Opertti, 2017: 15).

    Opertti, Renato. 15 clues to support the Education 2030 Agenda. Current and critical issues in the curriculum 14. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    An indicator may be defined as a tool that should make it possible both to have a sense of the state of an education system, and also to report on that state to the whole of the education community, in other words, to the whole of the country.

    Sauvageot, Claude. 1997. Indicators for educational planning: a practical guide. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In order to construct a good indicator, one must be able to identify the most interesting phenomena to measure.These willdepend,inter alia, on the country’s choices as inspired by the objectives of its education policy. The relevance of some indicators is more universal and descriptive, but in every case their importance will depend on the context. The areas covered generally relate to access, coverage, quality, effi ciency and resource management (Sauvageot and Dias da Graça, 2007: 23).

    Sauvageot, Claude, et Patricia Dias da Graça. 2007. Using indicators in planning education for rural people in Africa: a practical guide. Paris; Rome: UNESCO-IIPE; FAO.
  • DEFINITION

    To compensate for the unidimensional nature of each indicator, it is necessary to build a system of indicators, that is, a coherent set of indicators that together provide a valid representation of the condition of a particular education system, not just an ad hoc collection of readily available statistics. Ideally, an indicator system will provide information about how individual indicator components work together to produce an overall effect. In other words, the policy and interpretative value of all the information to be gained from a system of indicators is greater than the sum of its parts. To provide this overall picture, the selected indicators should be logically or empirically linked. The linkages should proceed from a model or framework that describes how the education system works. The model by itself permits the broader assessment of an indicator’s relevance (OECD/CERI, 1992: 15).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For most countries, the appearance of indicators and indicator systems in higher education constitutes a response to two policy objectives: exercising more rigorous monitoring in this field and, in times of fiscal restraint, establishing a more direct and observable link between funding and performance. The goal of using a system of indicators is to make the autonomy and diversification of higher education institutions compatible with accountability and effective management of these institutions. Indicators thus provide a means of not only external monitoring of these institutions by governments, but also internal monitoring of overall institutional goals or specific ones set by departments or service units (Martin and Sauvageot, 2009: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    Forms of learning that are intentional or deliberate but are not institutionalised. It is consequently less organized and structured than either formal or non-formal education. Informal learning may include learning activities that occur in the family, workplace, local community and daily life, on a self-directed, family-directed or socially-directed basis.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In general, informal learning does not involve teaching by a second party, is not organized, and does not lead to a recognized credential. Informal learning, experience and practice are closely-related concepts. Without careful distinction, most life experiences can be viewed as involving informal learning, but clearly certain types of activities are more relevant than others when it comes to the formation of relevant competencies (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 54).

    Desjardins, Richard; Kjell Rubenson, and Marcella Milana. Unequal chances to participate in adult learning: international perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2006.

  • DEFINITION

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These technological tools and resources include computers, the Internet (websites, blogs and emails), live broadcasting technologies (radio, television and webcasting), recorded broadcasting technologies (podcasting, audio and video players, and storage devices) and telephony (fixed or mobile, satellite, visio/video-conferencing, etc.) (UIS, 2009: 120).

    UIS. Guide to measuring information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Montreal: UIS, 2009.

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    We reaffirm that the most effective policy to integrate ICT in education is through whole school based planning, teacher training and professional development. We highlight that the challenge is not only to develop ICT competency standards for teachers and prepare teachers to integrate ICT in their pedagogy, but also to offer continuous support and to provide them with the incentives and the professional motivation to unlock ICT to enhance the quality of learning. To incentivize teachers, governments and institutions are recommended to integrate the evaluation of the use of ICT by institutions and teachers into the systems and practices for monitoring the quality of learning. (2017 Qindago Statement: 4).

    2017 Qingdao Statement: strategies for leveraging ICT to achieve Education 2030, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    General or vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As of 1998, Brazil brought in a National Fund for the Development of Primary Education and Teacher Development (FUNDEF). The fund adopted strategies establishing a minimum wage for education professionals. With 60 per cent of the fund devoted to the remuneration of teachers, the results of this initiative are encouraging since, after everal years of operation, teachers’ salaries have risen significantly. The law by which FUNDEF was created also set a period of five years for teachers to obtain the necessary certification to teach. Funds are set aside for the initial training of unqualified teachers; that is, who teach without having received any training (Vaillant, 2005: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    For input-based funding systems, public funds are provided to meet the costs of the inputs into the institution, for example, staff salaries, equipment, consumable items, buildings. Institutional managers are required to spend the funds on the inputs for which they are provided, but within these constraints it is [the organisation, for example the university} which decides what outputs to produce (Sanyal and Martin, 1998: 9)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The funding scheme for public universities offers a mixed picture and the lack of reform is somewhat baffling for adherents to isomorphism theory. In the pre-Bologna phase, public HE funding in Poland was exclusively input based (Dobbins and Knill, 2009: 420).

  • DEFINITION

    A body that ensures that the official regulations applying to a particular type of institution or activity are obeyed.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Finally, in many countries, education authorities have been granting greater freedom to individual schools to manage their own affairs, or, as a result of being constantly required to negotiate with unions even small changes in practice, have been losing control over what goes on in schools. The erosion of the role of school inspectorates illustrates this trend (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    Training conducted in a company school or arranged with technical schools, universities, or professional agencies.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While most apprenticeships are undertaken in an alternance mode in which employment periods and training periods are interspersed, some are also provided through a trainand- place model in which apprentices undertake an initial period of institution-based training followed by an on-the-job employment and training period (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2013: 181).

  • DEFINITION

    Capital asset that has no physical existence, such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, mineral rights, secret manufacturing processes, start-up costs, capitalized development costs and goodwill [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Each year a university is granted a subsidy from the state budget for the performance of its activities. Within the subsidy, the sum for capital investments and running costs are explicitly defined. Capital investments are used for the financing of long-term tangible and intangible property, and ensure its technical valorization (Hallak and Poisson, 2009: 101).

  • DEFINITION

    The internal efficiency of an educational system concerns the optimal use of resources (inputs) in producing its outputs. Assessments of internal efficiency are typically done for a specific level of education, say primary education, and the simplest indicator of internal efficiency is the unit cost of producing one unit of educational output, which may be a graduate of that level of education, or a student who has attained some minimum level of knowledge.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    An example might be a proposal to restructure schools or universities and merge two institutions on the grounds that this will increase internal efficiency and reduce unit costs through economies of scale (Woodhall, 2004: 38).

  • DEFINITION

    [A study which aims to] collect and analyze valid cross-national information about student educational achievement (Beaton et al., 1999: 11)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In this way, educational researchers in participating countries keep abreast of the latest developments in research techniques, while reports of the international studies make the techniques available to researchers in non-participating countries (Beaton et al., 1999: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    Classification system designed to serve as an instrument for assembling, compiling and presenting comparable indicators and statistics of education both within countries and internationally. The system, introduced in 1976, was revised in 1997 and 2011.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Three levels of education are represented; namely below upper secondary, upper secondary and tertiary education, or their equivalent in vocational qualifi cations. These groups correspond to Level 2 or below, Level 3, and above Level 3 respectively on the International Standard Classifi cation of Education (ISCED) scale. They can be broadly thought of as low, intermediate and high levels (McIntosh, 2008: 19).