Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Courses, seminars or workshops in which [teachers] participate on the job (Anderson, 2004: 111)., The process by which teachers engage in further education or training to refresh or upgrade their professional knowledge, skills and practices in the course of their employment (ILO, 2012: 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although in-service teacher training is beginning to acquire a degree of legitimacy, it still faces a number of diffi culties, notably as a result of the nature of the job, which requires that theory and practice be closely intertwined. Thus, the main problem in implementing teacher training programmes lies in the organization and supervision of classroom practices (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 44).

  • DEFINITION

    Inclusion is basically ensuring that every child, adolescent and youth is taken into consideration equally by the education system. It is about guaranteeing fair and quality learning conditions, processes and outcomes for all (Opertti, 2017: 15).

    Opertti, Renato. 15 clues to support the Education 2030 Agenda. Current and critical issues in the curriculum 14. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First and foremost, it is important to note the paradigm shift in inclusive education that went from focusing on the needs of students with individual needs or “special students”, to affirming that we are all specialand have ability potential to discover and support (Ainscow, 2016; Ainscow and Messiou, 2014; Opertti, Zachary and Zhang,  2014;  UNESCO,  2017).  Inclusive education does not mean dividing and separating students based on their “abilities”, nor physically integrating them into schools without adapting the infrastructure, curriculum, pedagogy and teacher roles. The focus should in fact be on the characteristics of each individual and how each person can learn more and better by being part of a collective learning space with peers and teachers (Opertti, 2017: 15).

    Opertti, Renato. 15 clues to support the Education 2030 Agenda. Current and critical issues in the curriculum 14. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    Forms of learning that are intentional or deliberate but are not institutionalised. It is consequently less organized and structured than either formal or non-formal education. Informal learning may include learning activities that occur in the family, workplace, local community and daily life, on a self-directed, family-directed or socially-directed basis.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In general, informal learning does not involve teaching by a second party, is not organized, and does not lead to a recognized credential. Informal learning, experience and practice are closely-related concepts. Without careful distinction, most life experiences can be viewed as involving informal learning, but clearly certain types of activities are more relevant than others when it comes to the formation of relevant competencies (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 54).

    Desjardins, Richard; Kjell Rubenson, and Marcella Milana. Unequal chances to participate in adult learning: international perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2006.

  • DEFINITION

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These technological tools and resources include computers, the Internet (websites, blogs and emails), live broadcasting technologies (radio, television and webcasting), recorded broadcasting technologies (podcasting, audio and video players, and storage devices) and telephony (fixed or mobile, satellite, visio/video-conferencing, etc.) (UIS, 2009: 120).

    UIS. Guide to measuring information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Montreal: UIS, 2009.

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    We reaffirm that the most effective policy to integrate ICT in education is through whole school based planning, teacher training and professional development. We highlight that the challenge is not only to develop ICT competency standards for teachers and prepare teachers to integrate ICT in their pedagogy, but also to offer continuous support and to provide them with the incentives and the professional motivation to unlock ICT to enhance the quality of learning. To incentivize teachers, governments and institutions are recommended to integrate the evaluation of the use of ICT by institutions and teachers into the systems and practices for monitoring the quality of learning. (2017 Qindago Statement: 4).

    2017 Qingdao Statement: strategies for leveraging ICT to achieve Education 2030, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    [A study which aims to] collect and analyze valid cross-national information about student educational achievement (Beaton et al., 1999: 11)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In this way, educational researchers in participating countries keep abreast of the latest developments in research techniques, while reports of the international studies make the techniques available to researchers in non-participating countries (Beaton et al., 1999: 17).