Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Decentralization is the transfer of responsibilities from the central level to other actors.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If decentralization is to be successful – that is, improve policy management and responsiveness – it must be based on an effective and competent central government. Far from disappearing, the state remains a key player in the decentralized system, although its role changes. Some of its responsibilities can even take on increased importance. For example, a successful decentralization policy requires the state to ensure quality monitoring, preservation of equity and professionalisation (Lugaz and De Grauwe, 2009: 4)

    Lugaz, Candy and Anton De Grauwe. « Decentralization in education ». IIEP newsletter 27, no 3 (2009): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    Demand for formal education expressed by potential learners.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    But as obviously important as manpower needs were finally conceded to be, they paled before another force that soon began to dominate the education scene and give sleepless nights to authorities throughout Europe and North America. This other force was the explosive increase in popular demand for education, which led to the Rampant Expansion Phase (Coombs, 1970: 23).

  • DEFINITION

    Education imparted at a distance through the use of information/communication technology: radio, TV, the telephone, correspondence, e-mail, videoconferencing, audioconferencing, cd-roms, or online.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There are about 6,100 students following courses locally in private institutions or through distance education. These students pay their own fees and are not subsidized by government. Students studying overseas also spend a substantial amount on their studies. Total expenditure on higher education for Mauritian students studying abroad is estimated to be more than Rs. 1 billion per annum, the equivalent of almost twice the total recurrent budget of the publicly-funded higher education institutions (Mohadeb, 2006: 40). , Technological advances have allowed the expansion of programme mobility, and this concerns not only the small states of the Commonwealth. Due to its low cost and the fact that it reduces migration and brain drain, many countries worldwide are increasingly implementing this mode of educational expansion. Any institution wishing to introduce distance education can now use a range of open-source learning management systems or software platforms that support e-learning. Indeed, some of the large states in the Commonwealth have some of the largest distance-learning programmes and virtual universities in the world (Varghese, 2011: 18).

  • DEFINITION

    In a double-shift system, schools cater for two entirely separate groups of pupils during a school day. The first group of pupils usually attends school from early morning until mid-day, and the second group usually attends from mid-day to late afternoon. Each group uses the same buildings, equipment and other facilities. In some systems the two groups are taught by the same teachers, but in other systems they are taught by different teachers (Bray, 2008: 17).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the view of many people, these problems outweigh the benefits. Public opinion often opposes introduction of double shifts on the grounds that the system can save money but creates educational and social problems. The extent to which this view is valid may depend on the management of double-shift systems, i.e. it concerns not only the overall concept but also the ways in which the policies are implemented (Bray, 2008: 20).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    Dropouts are pupils which either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. The number of dropouts is determined as a ‘residue’. We can deduce it by adding together the repeaters in grade (g) which are still in grade (g) in year (t+1) and the students promoted from grade (g) to grade (g+1) in year (t+1) and subtracting this total from the total enrolment of grade (g) in year (t).

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First of all, many studies have shown that an approach based on interaction not only leads to deeper, more efficient learning but also improves retention and averts dropout (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 73).

    Depover, Christian, et François Orivel. Developing countries in the e-learning era. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 96. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2012.