Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Decentralization is the transfer of responsibilities from the central level to other actors.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If decentralization is to be successful – that is, improve policy management and responsiveness – it must be based on an effective and competent central government. Far from disappearing, the state remains a key player in the decentralized system, although its role changes. Some of its responsibilities can even take on increased importance. For example, a successful decentralization policy requires the state to ensure quality monitoring, preservation of equity and professionalisation (Lugaz and De Grauwe, 2009: 4)

    Lugaz, Candy and Anton De Grauwe. « Decentralization in education ». IIEP newsletter 27, no 3 (2009): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    [Form of decentralisation]. Transfer to lower administrative levels.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It is important to emphasize that governance in one country seldom follows a totally pure model, but is rather a mixture of some of the above-mentioned models. For instance, even in fairly centralized systems some responsibilities will be given to lower level administrative units. In such a country, the governance framework will therefore be a mix of centralization with some trend of deconcentration. Overall, this will depend on the level and kind of actors considered to be the best placed in each country to make specific decisions in the field of education, and overall in the context of each country (ED/PED and IIEP, 2012: 53). , Moving the responsibilities for providing education from the central government down to regional or local governments is technically referred to as devolution. Moving responsibilities to the school itself is commonly referred to as school autonomy, or school based management. Giving lower levels of government education bureaucracy (lower administrative offices) enhanced decision-making responsibilities, while the centre retains overall control, is called deconcentration (UNESCO, 2012: 2).

  • DEFINITION

    Demand for formal education expressed by potential learners.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    But as obviously important as manpower needs were finally conceded to be, they paled before another force that soon began to dominate the education scene and give sleepless nights to authorities throughout Europe and North America. This other force was the explosive increase in popular demand for education, which led to the Rampant Expansion Phase (Coombs, 1970: 23).

  • DEFINITION

    [Form of decentralisation] Transfer to local elected authorities.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The devolution of authority for decision-making to local education offices has been an efficient but temporary solution, but would not be applicable as a long-term strategy, because (1) these authorities have to modify the curriculum in line with local insurgents’ opinions, which affects the quality of education; (2) the insurgents do not allow girls to participate beyond primary schools, so the Ministry would be unable to train female students in secondary schools in order to provide more local female teachers; and (3) the results of these negotiations are not always sustainable and will change as insurgent policy changes toward government authorities in the insecure provinces (Sigsgaard, 2011: 104). , There have been increasing calls for greater decentralization of the education system (the control of schools and appointment of teachers being devolved to parent and community groups, or the devolution of curriculum and assessment). This is particularly true in highly centralizeschool systems that, while they may provide equal access and educational provisions, are seen to ignore the needs of the students due to their focus on homogeneity in the education system (Inglis, 2008: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Teaching by traditional methods focusing on the blackboard and presentation by the teacher as opposed to more informal or interactive methods (Oxford English Dictionary)., The didactic approach mainly entails lecturing and is typically teacher-centred and content-oriented, i.e. teaching as transmission where the learners are considered to be the passive recipients of information transmitted (IBE, 2013).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In discussing teacher-student communication (Chapter VI), it was suggested that the use of questions fundamentally changes the nature of the communication that occurs in the classroom. Through proper use of questions, didactic teaching becomes dialogue. Pedantic teaching becomes thoughtful discourse (Anderson, 2004: 117).

  • DEFINITION

    Differentiated teaching is an attempt to address the needs of individuals in pursuit of both common and individual goals. In the context of classroom teaching, adaptation takes two paths (a) adapting instruction to student differences, and (b) adapting students to the instruction (Corno and Snow, 1986: 619).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The ‘flexible integration’ model is typified by high attainment levels, big differences in student scores and scores substantially influenced by social background. This system is quite flexible: it involves groups within classes in primary education, relatively flexible class-based or other forms of ability grouping (often by subject) in secondary education, and frequent use of differentiated teaching. According to Mons, this is why it manages to raise the attainment of the least able students to quite a high level, while still offering excellent provision to the strongest (Dupriez, 2010: 77).

  • DEFINITION

    In a double-shift system, schools cater for two entirely separate groups of pupils during a school day. The first group of pupils usually attends school from early morning until mid-day, and the second group usually attends from mid-day to late afternoon. Each group uses the same buildings, equipment and other facilities. In some systems the two groups are taught by the same teachers, but in other systems they are taught by different teachers (Bray, 2008: 17).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the view of many people, these problems outweigh the benefits. Public opinion often opposes introduction of double shifts on the grounds that the system can save money but creates educational and social problems. The extent to which this view is valid may depend on the management of double-shift systems, i.e. it concerns not only the overall concept but also the ways in which the policies are implemented (Bray, 2008: 20).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    The drop-out rate is a flow rate which reveals the ratio of pupils who from one year to the next either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils dropping out from grade (g)during year (t) by the total number of pupils in grade (g)in year (t).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The introduction of the Grade 10 assessment in Texas in the USA has been associated with an increase in the Grade 9 retention rate, in the school drop-out rate, and in the time devoted to subjects tested at the expense of other subjects (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 81).

  • DEFINITION

    Dropouts are pupils which either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. The number of dropouts is determined as a ‘residue’. We can deduce it by adding together the repeaters in grade (g) which are still in grade (g) in year (t+1) and the students promoted from grade (g) to grade (g+1) in year (t+1) and subtracting this total from the total enrolment of grade (g) in year (t).

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First of all, many studies have shown that an approach based on interaction not only leads to deeper, more efficient learning but also improves retention and averts dropout (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 73).

    Depover, Christian, et François Orivel. Developing countries in the e-learning era. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 96. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2012.
  • DEFINITION

    Premature school leaving before completing a cycle or course already begun.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Children of illiterate mothers have a greater chance of not going to school or of dropping out than children of literate mothers (Oxenham, 2008: 9).