Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The child-friendly school model is based on the simple premise that schools can and should operate in the best interests of the child. Educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective, staffed with trained teachers, equipped with adequate resources and offering conditions appropriate for learning.

    UNICEF. « Quality education and child-friendly schools ». Actions for children Issue 5 (2009).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If education systems are fully inclusive, quality education can be extended to all groups as a matter of routine. Bringing this about requires systems-level interventions. Instead of just ‘doing’ child-friendly schools in local communities, CFS models are ‘sold’ as good practice for the entire education system (UNICEF, 2009: 6).

    UNICEF. Child-friendly schools manual. New York: UNICEF, 2009.

  • DEFINITION

    Set of written guidelines, produced by public authorities or professional organizations, which details the set of recognized ethical norms (or values) and professional standards of conduct to which all members of a profession must adhere. Codes aim to enhance the commitment, dedication, and efficiency of members of the teaching profession, and to provide self-disciplinary guidelines by establishing norms of professional conduct.

    Source: ETICO glossary

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Malawi, the Safe Schools project used national advocacy networks to lobby successfully for revisions to teachers’ codes of conduct and call for stronger enforcement of regulations relating to misconduct. Awareness workshops were held for school supervisors and school committee members, who then ran sessions with teachers, pupils, counsellors and parents on the revised code. Manuals developed for training teachers and counsellors included modules on the code as well as support, referral and reporting procedures. An evaluation of the project found that the proportion of teachers who reported having seen the code of conduct rose from about three-quarters to almost all. The number of teachers who said they knew how to report a violation of the code increased by over one-third, and virtually all of those said they had a responsibility to report violations (UNESCO, 2014: 270).

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    The coefficient of efficiency refers to the ideal (optimal) number of pupil-years required (i.e. in the absence of repetition and drop-out) to produce a number of graduates from a given pupil cohort in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years spent to produce the same number of graduates. The coefficient of efficiency is a synthetic indicator of the internal efficiency of an education system (Lievesley and Sauvageot, 2000: 36).

    Lievesley, Denise, and Claude Sauvageot. Education for All Year 2000 Assessment: statistical document. Paris: UNESCO, 2000.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The third variable, the coefficient of efficiency, is obtained by dividing the number of pupil-years normally required to complete the primary cycle by the number of pupil-years actually spent. Thus, higher coefficients indicate greater efficiency, pupils spending on average less time to complete the primary education cycle. Although these data do not show the disparities between urban and rural areas, there appears to be a weak inverse correlation between the efficiency factors and the rurality of a country. In any case the data do illustrate how pervasive the problem of primary schooling ‘wastage’ is, rural pupils typically spending far too much time in primary education (IIEP and FAO, 2003: 88).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003.

  • DEFINITION

    Educational programmes that children and young people are legally obliged to attend, usually defined in tersm of a number of grades or an age range, or both.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If practice in most countries is followed, then the particular age(s) or grade levels(s) selected for a national assessment will fall within the period of compulsory education (most likely at primary-school level); furthermore, students will have been in school long enough foreducation to have had an impact. (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2002: 86).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    The term 'cost-benefit analysis' implies a systematic comparison of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of a form of investment in order to assess its economic profitability (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Cost-benefit analysis (or rate-of-return analysis, which is the type of cost-benefit analysis most frequently applied to education) provides a means of appraising these future benefits in the light of the costs that must be incurred in the present. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a measure of the expected yield of the investment as a guide to rational allocation of resources. Thus any private businessman who is contemplating investing in physical machinery must make a cost-benefit calculation to assess the likely profitability of the investment. In recent years, economists have paid increasing attention to the application of cost-benefit analysis to public investment and sophisticated techniques have been developed for measuring the costs and benefits of, for example, water resource and transport projects. Such projects are clearly analogous to private investments in physical capital and it is not surprising that techniques that are useful to the businessman should also prove useful to governments in making investment decisions (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

  • DEFINITION

    Inventory of activities related to the design, organisation and planning of an education or training action, including definition of learning objectives, content, methods (including assessment) and material, as well as arrangements for training teachers and trainers.

    CEDEFOP. Terminology of European education and training policy. 2nd ed. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Curriculum is, in the simplest terms, a description of what, why, how and when students should learn. The curriculum is not,of course, an end in itself. Rather, it seeks both to achieve worthwhile and useful learning outcomes for students, and to realize a range of societal demands and government policies. It is in and through the curriculum that key economic, political, social and cultural questions about the aims, purposes, content and processes of education are resolved. The policy statement and technical document that represent the curriculum reflect also a broader political and social agreement about what a society deems of most worth – that which is of sufficient importance to pass on to its children (Stabback, 2016: 8).

    Stabback, Philippe. What makes a quality curriculum? Current and critical issues in the curriculum and learning 2. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2016.