Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Implies the enhancement of capabilities of people and institutions to improve their competence and problem solving capacities in a sustainable manner.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where a programme is financed by external agencies, the fifth option may also involve the issue of ownership and control: should the local agency – whether governmental or non-governmental – be responsible for the samples, or should the fi nancier accept them? Currently, the general policy is to encourage local ownership and control in the interests of promoting capacity-building, although external specialists are often imported to help with the design and analysis (Oxenham, 2008: 112).

  • DEFINITION

    Major costs for periodic investments such as Expenditure for assets that yield benefits for a period of more than one year. It includes expenditure for construction, renovation and major repairs of buildings and the purchase of heavy equipment or vehicles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Governments often treat large-scale investment in physical facilities and equipment as a capital investment, i.e. a one-off cost, although institutions may need to pay annual interest payments and allow for depreciation. An institution with no, little, or very out-of-date existing technology infrastructure may indeed initially require a heavy one- time investment, but in general, technology infrastructure requires regular ongoing funding, for two reasons. First, the technology changes very rapidly due to technical advances. For instance, the average life of a desktop computer is three years or so, as the power and functionality of computers constantly develops. Secondly, the cost of human support for the infrastructure usually far exceeds the cost of equipment replacement and upgrading. Thus, investment in technological infrastructure within and between institutions should be seen as a recurrent or operational cost. When physical infrastructure is treated as a capital expenditure, it is less likely to compete for funds that impact directly on teaching. However, as an operational cost, the need to fund technology support staff directly competes with funds for teaching and research. Consequently, the human technology support side is often underfunded in many educational institutions (Bates, 2001: 38).

  • DEFINITION

    A largely verbal process in which a counsellor and counsellee(s) are in a dynamic and collaborative relationship, focused on identifying and acting on the counselee’s goals, in which the counsellor employs a repertoire of diverse techniques and processes, to help bring about self-understanding, understanding of behavioural options available, and informed decisionmaking in the counsellee, who has the responsibility for his or her own actions (UNESCO, 2002: 5).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Similarly, GTZ has completed the screening of the indicators used by a number of German TVSD programmes, in the context of development cooperation (Castañer et al., 2007). One such indicator relates to the views of employers on preparedness of trainees and appropriateness of training contents (also measured by the time needed to get new employees ‘operational’); another relates to youths’ (or parents’) views on information received about the labour market and career counselling, after a certain period of time (King and Palmer, 2010: 91)

  • DEFINITION

    The catchment area of a school is defined as the geographic area served by the school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the absence of reliable local population data, the estimates for the following school year intakes are based on data collected by the heads of the schools in the school catchment area. Every year, after the school year has begun, the school heads and the school management committee presidents visit the families in their catchment areas in order to collect the names of all children aged six. These children (whose parents claim them to be six years old) are expected to register in school during the following school year and therefore they represent the new intake for the coming school year. These data, as well as other data on student flow rates (repetition, promotion and dropout) within the school system, are used by the schools for preparing their plan for the following year (Oulai et al, 2011: 48). , While assignment may be ‘enlightened’ by research findings, it mainly reflects a country’s political culture and is tinged with the prevailing ideologies at a given point in time. For example, it is no coincidence that, at the end of the 1980s, it was a ‘liberal’ government in the United Kingdom that decided to do away with the policy of school catchment areas and establish for families the principle of a ‘free choice’ of school, thus bringing into being a ‘school market’ system. In the field of research, economists and sociologists are probably those who have most vigorously addressed the question of how students are allocated to particular schools. Their research – and especially that of the economists – seeks on the whole to identify the impact of the various institutional mechanisms used to distribute students among schools (Dupriez, 2010: 21).

  • DEFINITION

    The child-friendly school model is based on the simple premise that schools can and should operate in the best interests of the child. Educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective, staffed with trained teachers, equipped with adequate resources and offering conditions appropriate for learning.

    UNICEF. « Quality education and child-friendly schools ». Actions for children Issue 5 (2009).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If education systems are fully inclusive, quality education can be extended to all groups as a matter of routine. Bringing this about requires systems-level interventions. Instead of just ‘doing’ child-friendly schools in local communities, CFS models are ‘sold’ as good practice for the entire education system (UNICEF, 2009: 6).

    UNICEF. Child-friendly schools manual. New York: UNICEF, 2009.

  • DEFINITION

    Techniques used in the classroom or in any other educational setting to create propitious learning conditions; includes discipline, management, sitting arrangement.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In an attempt to better understand the differences between the corporate training classroom and the college classroom, this study compares the classroom techniques of college instructors and corporate trainers and assesses the effectiveness of games as an active learning classroom technique to engage learners (Kumar and Lightner, 2007: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    School where boys and girls are educated together.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The National Girls’ Education Strategy is at the centre of the overall sectoral policy in Yemen, where a Girls’ Education Section and a Community Participation Department have been created in the Ministry of Education to implement the strategy. Within this framework, the government has mobilized the community in support of female education, including through the establishment of village-level communicators and parent councils, as well as training activities to create awareness of the importance of girls’ and women’s education, and to support behavioural changes. It has also accelerated the construction of co-educational and female-only schools, especially in rural areas, and increased the number of female teachers. Among the latest government measures was the abolition of primary school fees for girls in 2006 (UNESCO, 2008: 117).

  • DEFINITION

    Set of written guidelines, produced by public authorities or professional organizations, which details the set of recognized ethical norms (or values) and professional standards of conduct to which all members of a profession must adhere. Codes aim to enhance the commitment, dedication, and efficiency of members of the teaching profession, and to provide self-disciplinary guidelines by establishing norms of professional conduct.

    Source: ETICO glossary

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Malawi, the Safe Schools project used national advocacy networks to lobby successfully for revisions to teachers’ codes of conduct and call for stronger enforcement of regulations relating to misconduct. Awareness workshops were held for school supervisors and school committee members, who then ran sessions with teachers, pupils, counsellors and parents on the revised code. Manuals developed for training teachers and counsellors included modules on the code as well as support, referral and reporting procedures. An evaluation of the project found that the proportion of teachers who reported having seen the code of conduct rose from about three-quarters to almost all. The number of teachers who said they knew how to report a violation of the code increased by over one-third, and virtually all of those said they had a responsibility to report violations (UNESCO, 2014: 270).

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    The coefficient of efficiency refers to the ideal (optimal) number of pupil-years required (i.e. in the absence of repetition and drop-out) to produce a number of graduates from a given pupil cohort in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years spent to produce the same number of graduates. The coefficient of efficiency is a synthetic indicator of the internal efficiency of an education system (Lievesley and Sauvageot, 2000: 36).

    Lievesley, Denise, and Claude Sauvageot. Education for All Year 2000 Assessment: statistical document. Paris: UNESCO, 2000.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The third variable, the coefficient of efficiency, is obtained by dividing the number of pupil-years normally required to complete the primary cycle by the number of pupil-years actually spent. Thus, higher coefficients indicate greater efficiency, pupils spending on average less time to complete the primary education cycle. Although these data do not show the disparities between urban and rural areas, there appears to be a weak inverse correlation between the efficiency factors and the rurality of a country. In any case the data do illustrate how pervasive the problem of primary schooling ‘wastage’ is, rural pupils typically spending far too much time in primary education (IIEP and FAO, 2003: 88).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003.

  • DEFINITION

    The coefficient of variation (CV) is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. The higher the coefficient of variation, the greater the level of dispersion around the mean. It is generally expressed as a percentage. Without units, it allows for comparison between distributions of values whose scales of measurement are not comparable. When we are presented with estimated values, the CV relates the standard deviation of the estimate to the value of this estimate. The lower the value of the coefficient of variation, the more precise the estimate.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Second, we examine the distribution of results within classes. In the absence of external controls, the teacher can communicate the correct answers to students or change their answers in the answer sheet, or students can simply copy from each other. If outright cheating by students and/or teachers was taking place in the classes without the external examiner, we should find that in these classes – ceteris paribus - the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of test results are lower than in classes with the external examiner, where cheating is minimized or altogether absent (Bertoni, Brunello and Rocco, 2013: 74).

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    DEFINITION

    A cohort is a group of persons who experience a certain event in a specified period of time. For example, the birth cohort of 1985 would be the people born in that year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teachers and lecturers in secondary schools, training institutions and universities are as vulnerable to HIV/AIDS as their colleagues in primary schools. Indeed, the current cohorts may be even more vulnerable, since, like their primary-school counterparts, they reached their current professional status in the 1980s and early 1990s, but unlike them rose to even higher educational levels, a factor which at that time was associated with considerably higher risk of infection (Kelly, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Traces the flow of a given cohort through their promotion, repetition, drop out and completion of the final grade of the cycle.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Data on completion rates were collected through a special survey undertaken in 2012. The completion rate is calculated from a cohort analysis in half of the countries listed in Table A4.1 (true cohort method), which is based on panel data that follow the individual student from entrance to graduation in the programme (OECD, 2013: 70)

  • DEFINITION

    Study of the comparison of current educational theory and practice in different countries.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    All these studies focus mainly on OECD countries, however there has also been an interesting project involving the OECD, UNESCO and the World Bank that seeks to extend to selected developing and transition countries a programme designed to collect and analyze comparative education statistics and indicators: the World Education Indicators (WEI) programme, covering 11 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Thailand) (Woodhall, 2004: 98).

  • DEFINITION

    [Extra lessons] for deprived or disadvantaged students.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Migrant education is a term adopted in countries such as Australia or Germany to refer to the initial strategies responding to the needs of newly-arrived students (Luchtenberg, 2004: 47). It consists of compensatory programmes targeting only migrant students and their perceived deficits, where the long-term objective is the students’ assimilation (Inglis, 2008: 50).

  • DEFINITION

    Refers to specific teaching skills of interacting with students in classrooms, based on the clear definition of the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be acquired.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The introduction of competency-based training (CBT): CBT gives more emphasis to trainees’ ability to master specifi c practical tasks or competencies than to the level or type of certifi cation, or length of training, they have received. CBT curricula are developed in accordance with the identifi ed skills needs of the private sector (trade and commercial associations, employer associations, and industry) and delivered through assessed modules of different competencies (King and Palmer, 2010: 72).

  • DEFINITION

    Educational programmes that children and young people are legally obliged to attend, usually defined in tersm of a number of grades or an age range, or both.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If practice in most countries is followed, then the particular age(s) or grade levels(s) selected for a national assessment will fall within the period of compulsory education (most likely at primary-school level); furthermore, students will have been in school long enough foreducation to have had an impact. (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2002: 86).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Essential or basic parts of the curriculum of an educational institution that are studied by all its students even though each has a choice of optional subjects in addition.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A core curriculum lasting up to the age of 15 or 16 keeps the least privileged families away from a process of ‘self-selection’ and from choosing those tracks with the lowest academic standing, which are also perceived as involving the least risk (Dupriez, 2010: 73).

  • DEFINITION

    Cost-effectiveness analysis refers to a method for combining appropriate measures of outcomes with costs so that program and policy alternatives can be ranked according to their effectiveness relative to resource use. It differs from its close relation, cost-benefit analysis, which requires monetary measures of impact relative to costs. (Levin, 2001: 56-57)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Cost-effectiveness analysis consists of three steps: (a) The costs of the alternatives must be carefully measured, for example expenditure on teacher salaries, books and learning materials in each type of school; (b) the outcomes or educational effectiveness of the alternatives must be measured, for example by standardized test scores of pupils in each school; finally, (c) costs and effectiveness measures are combined to calculate a cost-effectiveness ratio, for example by dividing the effectiveness of each alternative by its cost to show the unit cost of achieving a particular objective, such as a 1 per cent improvement in pupil achievement. Such a ratio is described in one cost-effectiveness study as "the achievement gain per dollar spent" (Harbison and Hanushek, 1992: 140). The most cost-effective alternative can then be identified - for example the school that produces the greatest improvement in pupil achievement for a given cost or alternatively the school where pupils achieve the required examination results at least cost (Woodhall, 2004: 26).

  • DEFINITION

    The term 'cost-benefit analysis' implies a systematic comparison of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of a form of investment in order to assess its economic profitability (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Cost-benefit analysis (or rate-of-return analysis, which is the type of cost-benefit analysis most frequently applied to education) provides a means of appraising these future benefits in the light of the costs that must be incurred in the present. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a measure of the expected yield of the investment as a guide to rational allocation of resources. Thus any private businessman who is contemplating investing in physical machinery must make a cost-benefit calculation to assess the likely profitability of the investment. In recent years, economists have paid increasing attention to the application of cost-benefit analysis to public investment and sophisticated techniques have been developed for measuring the costs and benefits of, for example, water resource and transport projects. Such projects are clearly analogous to private investments in physical capital and it is not surprising that techniques that are useful to the businessman should also prove useful to governments in making investment decisions (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

  • DEFINITION

    Current expenditure includes final consumption expenditure (e.g. compensation of employees, consumption of intermediate goods and services, consumption of fixed capital, and military expenditure), property income paid, subsidies, and other current transfers paid (e.g. social security, social assistance, pensions and other welfare benefits).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It is usually fairly easy to obtain estimates of annual current expenditure on salaries and purchase of materials. It is more difficult to estimate the annual value of buildings and equipment. If the buildings are rented, the annual rent can be used to represent the value of the capital resources used during the year (Woodhall, 2004: 31)