Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Schools are organized into clusters, usually consisting of a central, relatively well-resourced school and several smaller satellites. The latter may be one-room schools with one-room school with one person teaching more than one grade in the same class.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Satellite systems have to address difficult problems in managing progression through grades. The núcleo system in Bolivia aims to ensure that children complete their basic education at the consolidador, or central school. Another approach is to create satellite schools that provide a full primary cycle, such as those developed for remote rural communities in Burkina Faso (UNESCO, 2010: 192).

    UNESCO. 2010. Reaching the Marginalized: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2010. Paris: UNESCO.

  • DEFINITION

    Population of the age group officially corresponding to a given level of education, whether enrolled in school or not.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased access to primary and secondary education places great demands on the quality of the teaching force. During the 1990s, the increase in the school-age population outpaced the growth in the number of teachers worldwide (Anderson, 2004: 19).

  • DEFINITION

    School attendance is attendance at any regular accredited educational institution or programme, public or private, for organised learning at any level of education at the time of the census or, if the census is taken during the vacation period at the end of the school year, during the last school year (OECD, n.d.)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Colombia, vouchers are used to increase school attendance by children in low income families in areas which have space in private schools but none in public schools (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    Governing body that is mainly external and that may have consultative and/or governing duties.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The most interesting feature of the Minas Gerais reform is its multi-pronged approach. It simultaneously tried to: increase the autonomy of the schools; transfer financial resources directly to the control of school principals; create school boards with active parent participation; have principals chosen by school boards, among candidates pre-screened through an examination; create teachertraining programmes managed by the schools; and establish a state-wide evaluation of schools via a student-testing programme (Carnoy, 1999: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    Group [of] neighbouring schools around a larger core school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some countries’ plans aim to improve teaching quality by setting higher qualification standards for teachers; in Bangladesh, for example, a diploma in education is to replace the certification in education by 2014. Other plans emphasize less traditional approaches, such as school cluster-based in-service teacher education in Kenya, Namibia, Sudan and Timor-Leste. Rwanda aims to use mentors in every school to support teacher development (UNESCO, 2014: 218).

  • DEFINITION

    As a strategic planning device, school development planning is concerned with long-term goals (the mission) to be translated into planned and prioritized shortterm objectives and improvement actions (development planning), after careful analysis of the strength and weaknesses of the school (audit).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The findings from such studies suggest that in-service staff development is most effective when delivered in connection with a school development plan (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 69).

  • DEFINITION

    A school grant is the transfer of funds from the central level directly to schools to cover their running costs.

    [Adapted from] Chimier, C.; Harang, C. 2018. Designing and implementing a school grant policy. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The policy landscape in which school grant policies are designed and implemented varies from one country to another; however, in all four countries,  these  policies have been  implemented  to respond  to the following  policy  objectives,  more or  less explicitly,  as noted in the respective guidelines: contribute to equal access to school for all children, including the poorest, by reducing the cost barriers of schooling to parents; improve education quality in the beneficiary schools;  improve school management and functioning  through  greater school autonomy; increase administrative efficiency (Lugaz and De Grauwe, 2016: 44-45).

    Lugaz, C.; De Grauwe, A. 2016. Improving school financing: the use and usefulness of school grants; lessons from East Asia and the Pacific. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    School health programmes help link the resources of the health, education, nutrition, and sanitation sectors in an infrastructure - the school - that is already in place, is pervasive and is sustained.

    UNICEF, WHO, et World Bank. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH start to enhancing the quality and equity of education, 2001.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Improving the health and learning of school children through school-based health and nutrition programmes is not a new concept. Many countries have school health programmes, and many agencies and non-government organizations (NGO’s) have decades of experience. These common experiences suggest an opportunity for concerted action by a partnership of agencies and NGO’s to broaden the scope of school health programmes and make them more effective. Effective school health programmes will contribute to the development of Child-friendly schools and thus to the promotion of education for all (UNICEF, WHO and World Bank, 2001: 5).

    UNICEF, WHO, et World Bank. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH start to enhancing the quality and equity of education, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Inspection is a general examination of an organizational unit, issue or practice to ascertain the extent it adheres to normative standards, good practices or other criteria and to make recommendations for improvement or corrective action. It is often performed when there is a perceived risk of non-compliance (UNDP, 2009: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School inspection was also transformed. The earlier system of inspection, directly subordinated to the regional and local authorities, was suppressed. Regional advisory centres were set up and schools in need of professional advice transferred the former inspectors to these centres as professional advisers who could be invited (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 9).

  • DEFINITION

    The lowest age at which a person can leave school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In countries where compulsory schooling consists of approximately nine years or less, the average (compulsory) school-leaving age is 16 or under (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    School mapping is a set of techniques and procedures used to estimate future education requirements at local level and work out what needs to be done to meet them. In that sense, school mapping is a micro-planning exercise, with the specificity that it seeks a better match between the supply of, and demand for, education. Do not confuse school mapping with a simple “atlas” merely showing the location of schools. Showing where schools are located, though very useful, is but the first stage of school mapping. Unlike an ordinary map that by its very nature is static, school mapping gives a dynamic and prospective vision of how the education service should look in the future, showing its buildings, teachers, and facilities, to enable the implementation of education policies.

    Caillods, Francoise, Jocelyne Casselli, Ta Ngoc Châu, and Guy Porte. School mapping and micro-planning in education. Training materials in educational planning, administration and facilities. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1983.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School mapping aims to align the supply and demand for education by considering the existing situation alongside the resources available and the estimate of future needs. These are determined from strategic options in education policies, demographic changes and the internal dynamics of the education system (flow rate variations). Yet this exercise is fraught with technical difficulties. It presupposes sound methodological control of school mapping and implies constant reliance on micro-planning tools throughout the process (Sylla and Tournier, 2013: 4).

    Sylla, Khadim, and Barbara Tournier. « The benefits of school mapping ». IIEP newsletter 31, no 1 (2013): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    This type of survey can provide information not normally collected in the annual (or bi-annual) questionnaires sent out by the education ministry. The needed information varies depending on the educational level. In primary, where teachers usually take their class for all subjects, and where nearly all school premises are given over to general instruction, fairly little information is required. In secondary education, where each teacher is specialised, and, in addition to general-academic classrooms there are diverse specialised rooms (laboratories, workshops, etc.), much more information is required.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Household and school surveys indicate that financial contributions to schools, and related expenditures, can represent a large fraction of household expenses (Table 4.7). In Panama, for instance, 7.7% of household total annual expenditure is spent on education while in Nicaragua and Tajikistan the share is 5.5% (UNESCO, 2008: 151).

  • DEFINITION

    Allowing schools more autonomy in decisions about the use of their human, material and financial resources

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The scarcity of women among planners and managers may help explain the lack of reflection on the impact in gender terms of some popular management reforms. Take the example of school-based management (SBM). While the teaching profession is increasingly feminized, the position of head teacher remains male-dominated in many countries. As a result of greater school autonomy, the administrative and managerial workload of principals increases, to the detriment of their role as pedagogical leaders (De Grauwe, 2010: 10).

  • DEFINITION

    Secondary education provides learning and educational activities building on primary education and preparing for labour market entry, postsecondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education. Broadly speaking, secondary education aims at learning at an intermediate level of complexity. ISCED distinguishes between lower and upper secondary education (ISCED levels 2 and 3).

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While the expansion of secondary education has been significant, challenges remain. Millions of students leave school without completing 12 years of education. Furthermore, expansion does not guarantee equal access and quality of provision. (Jacinto, 2011: 2)

    Jacinto, Claudia. « Meeting the expectations of youth ». IIEP Newsletter XXIX, no 2 (2011).

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    DEFINITION

    Non-innate capabilities that can be learned and transmitted, and have economic or social benefits to both individuals and their societies.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Saavedra and  Opfer  (2012)  argue that learners must hone their skills and enhance their learning as a  matter of urgency to be able to address persistent global challenges.  However,  in spite of worldwide agreement that learners need skills such as critical thinking and the ability to communicate effectively,  innovate and solve problems through negotiation and collaboration,  pedagogy has not adapted to address these new challenges (UNESCO, 2015:2).

    Cynthia  Luna  Scott. 2015. THE FUTURES of LEARNING 3: What kind of pedagogies for the 21st  century? UNESCO Education Research and Foresight, Paris. [ERF Working Papers Series, No. 15]

  • DEFINITION

    Planning and policy-making based upon responses to political demands.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Over time, various forecasting techniques and simulation models were developed which aimed at orienting the educational investments either according to the needs of the labour market (manpower approach), or to the social demand for education (social demand approach), or to the needs of education sub-sectors with the best rate of return (cost–benefit approach), or to a more or less harmonious combination of these three approaches (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 9)., Following the “democratization of education” at the end of the 1950s, planning experts sought ways of assessing education costs as part of national budgets and forecasting the needs of education systems. The rather rudimentary planning of the first period evolved and became more sophisticated. The “social demand” approach assumes that the objective of policy is to provide a supply of facilities corresponding with the estimated demand for educational services (Resnik, 2006).

  • DEFINITION

    Space utilization rate (S.U.R.): compares average group size in a classroom with the room’s theoretical capacity: S.U.R = (average class size/ classroom capacity) x 100.

    Caillods, Francoise, et al. 1983. School Mapping and Micro-Planning in Education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A classroom built to take 30 pupils is only occupied by an average of 15 pupils. The space utilisation rate is (15/30) x 100 = 50 %. It is more difficult to calculate this ratio given that the classroom capacity must be evaluated. Should this be the capacity featuring in the classroom construction programme? Should headteachers be asked to determine the capacity of each classroom? Then, the risk is that school principals would indicate the number of existing seats instead of the potential number. Classroom capacity can also be calculated by dividing the area (m2) of each classroom by the standard area (m2) per pupil (UNESCO-IIEP, 1983:87).

    Caillods, Francoise, et al. 1983. School Mapping and Micro-Planning in Education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Education of students with special learning needs such as those with disabilities or learning difficulties.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    State educational planners can use a variety of mechanisms to control diverse educational structures so as to achieve particular objectives associated with a positive outcome. Just as there are debates concerning whether special-needs students should be educated in special schools with appropriate physical facilities and staff, or whether it is important for them and other students to be educated in ordinary schools, albeit with suitable support networks and services, so too there are similar debates among those concerned about how best to meet the needs of students from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds (Inglis, 2008: 57).

    Inglis, Christine. 2008. Planning for cultural diversity. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 87. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.