Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Small schools organised [around] a reasonably well-resourced central school. Most satellite schools have just one classroom and one teacher who teaches several grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Satellite systems have to address difficult problems in managing progression through grades. The núcleo system in Bolivia aims to ensure that children complete their basic education at the consolidador, or central school. Another approach is to create satellite schools that provide a full primary cycle, such as those developed for remote rural communities in Burkina Faso (UNESCO, 2010: 192).

  • DEFINITION

    Population of the age group officially corresponding to a given level of education, whether enrolled in school or not.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased access to primary and secondary education places great demands on the quality of the teaching force. During the 1990s, the increase in the school-age population outpaced the growth in the number of teachers worldwide (Anderson, 2004: 19).

  • DEFINITION

    Group [of] neighbouring schools around a larger core school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some countries’ plans aim to improve teaching quality by setting higher qualification standards for teachers; in Bangladesh, for example, a diploma in education is to replace the certification in education by 2014. Other plans emphasize less traditional approaches, such as school cluster-based in-service teacher education in Kenya, Namibia, Sudan and Timor-Leste. Rwanda aims to use mentors in every school to support teacher development (UNESCO, 2014: 218).

  • DEFINITION

    The merging of two or more attendance areas to form a larger school (cited in Peshkin, 1982: 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As discussed above, school consolidation was part of a broader movement of school reform. In the years between 1930 and 1970, the school term grew longer, class sizes shrank, and teachers became better paid. The average state share of funding for public education more than doubled between 1930 and 1950, from less than 20 percent to roughly 40 percent, and made a smaller jump again in the late 1970s (see Figure 5). The overall effect of these changes was to transform the small, informal, community controlled schools of the 19th century into centralized, professionally run educational bureaucracies. The American public school system as we know it today was born during this brief, tumultuous period (Berry and West: 8).

  • DEFINITION

    As a strategic planning device, school development planning is concerned with long-term goals (the mission) to be translated into planned and prioritized shortterm objectives and improvement actions (development planning), after careful analysis of the strength and weaknesses of the school (audit).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The findings from such studies suggest that in-service staff development is most effective when delivered in connection with a school development plan (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 69).

  • DEFINITION

    A school grant is the transfer of funds from the central level directly to schools to cover their running costs.

    [Adapted from] Chimier, C.; Harang, C. 2018. Designing and implementing a school grant policy. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The policy landscape in which school grant policies are designed and implemented varies from one country to another; however, in all four countries,  these  policies have been  implemented  to respond  to the following  policy  objectives,  more or  less explicitly,  as noted in the respective guidelines: contribute to equal access to school for all children, including the poorest, by reducing the cost barriers of schooling to parents; improve education quality in the beneficiary schools;  improve school management and functioning  through  greater school autonomy; increase administrative efficiency (Lugaz and De Grauwe, 2016: 44-45).

    Lugaz, C.; De Grauwe, A. 2016. Improving school financing: the use and usefulness of school grants; lessons from East Asia and the Pacific. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    School health programmes help link the resources of the health, education, nutrition, and sanitation sectors in an infrastructure - the school - that is already in place, is pervasive and is sustained.

    UNICEF, WHO, et World Bank. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH start to enhancing the quality and equity of education, 2001.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Improving the health and learning of school children through school-based health and nutrition programmes is not a new concept. Many countries have school health programmes, and many agencies and non-government organizations (NGO’s) have decades of experience. These common experiences suggest an opportunity for concerted action by a partnership of agencies and NGO’s to broaden the scope of school health programmes and make them more effective. Effective school health programmes will contribute to the development of Child-friendly schools and thus to the promotion of education for all (UNICEF, WHO and World Bank, 2001: 5).

    UNICEF, WHO, et World Bank. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH start to enhancing the quality and equity of education, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Inspection is a general examination of an organizational unit, issue or practice to ascertain the extent it adheres to normative standards, good practices or other criteria and to make recommendations for improvement or corrective action. It is often performed when there is a perceived risk of non-compliance (UNDP, 2009: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School inspection was also transformed. The earlier system of inspection, directly subordinated to the regional and local authorities, was suppressed. Regional advisory centres were set up and schools in need of professional advice transferred the former inspectors to these centres as professional advisers who could be invited (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 9).

  • DEFINITION

    The lowest age at which a person can leave school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In countries where compulsory schooling consists of approximately nine years or less, the average (compulsory) school-leaving age is 16 or under (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    [Primary or] secondary school leaving examination, typically leading to the acquisition of a diploma or certificate. Admission systems [to the next level of education] require students to hold such a diploma (Directorate-General of internal policies, 2014: 36).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In France, the reporting of the results of the school-leaving examination (Baccalauréat) goes a step further in an attempt to contextualize students’ performance and to take into account factors other than teaching in the school that may have affected it (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 78).

  • DEFINITION

    School mapping is a set of techniques and procedures used to estimate future education requirements at local level and work out what needs to be done to meet them. In that sense, school mapping is a micro-planning exercise, with the specificity that it seeks a better match between the supply of, and demand for, education. Do not confuse school mapping with a simple “atlas” merely showing the location of schools. Showing where schools are located, though very useful, is but the first stage of school mapping. Unlike an ordinary map that by its very nature is static, school mapping gives a dynamic and prospective vision of how the education service should look in the future, showing its buildings, teachers, and facilities, to enable the implementation of education policies.

    Caillods, Francoise, Jocelyne Casselli, Ta Ngoc Châu, and Guy Porte. School mapping and micro-planning in education. Training materials in educational planning, administration and facilities. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1983.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School mapping aims to align the supply and demand for education by considering the existing situation alongside the resources available and the estimate of future needs. These are determined from strategic options in education policies, demographic changes and the internal dynamics of the education system (flow rate variations). Yet this exercise is fraught with technical difficulties. It presupposes sound methodological control of school mapping and implies constant reliance on micro-planning tools throughout the process (Sylla and Tournier, 2013: 4).

    Sylla, Khadim, and Barbara Tournier. « The benefits of school mapping ». IIEP newsletter 31, no 1 (2013): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    This type of survey can provide information not normally collected in the annual (or bi-annual) questionnaires sent out by the education ministry. The needed information varies depending on the educational level. In primary, where teachers usually take their class for all subjects, and where nearly all school premises are given over to general instruction, fairly little information is required. In secondary education, where each teacher is specialised, and, in addition to general-academic classrooms there are diverse specialised rooms (laboratories, workshops, etc.), much more information is required.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Household and school surveys indicate that financial contributions to schools, and related expenditures, can represent a large fraction of household expenses (Table 4.7). In Panama, for instance, 7.7% of household total annual expenditure is spent on education while in Nicaragua and Tajikistan the share is 5.5% (UNESCO, 2008: 151).

  • DEFINITION

    Allowing schools more autonomy in decisions about the use of their human, material and financial resources

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The scarcity of women among planners and managers may help explain the lack of reflection on the impact in gender terms of some popular management reforms. Take the example of school-based management (SBM). While the teaching profession is increasingly feminized, the position of head teacher remains male-dominated in many countries. As a result of greater school autonomy, the administrative and managerial workload of principals increases, to the detriment of their role as pedagogical leaders (De Grauwe, 2010: 10).

  • DEFINITION

    Secondary education provides learning and educational activities building on primary education and preparing for labour market entry, postsecondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education. Broadly speaking, secondary education aims at learning at an intermediate level of complexity. ISCED distinguishes between lower and upper secondary education (ISCED levels 2 and 3).

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While the expansion of secondary education has been significant, challenges remain. Millions of students leave school without completing 12 years of education. Furthermore, expansion does not guarantee equal access and quality of provision. (Jacinto, 2011: 2)

    Jacinto, Claudia. « Meeting the expectations of youth ». IIEP Newsletter XXIX, no 2 (2011).

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    DEFINITION

    The ability to apply learning outcomes adequately in a defined context (education, work, personal or professional development).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The severely disrupted Western European economies recovered their pre-war production levels with surprising speed and proceeded to climb to new heights. This quick recovery, it is worth noting, was mainly due to large and well-planned infusions of fresh capital (through the Marshall Plan) into economic systems that were already endowed with sophisticated economic institutions and a ready supply of modern human skills and know-how (Coombs, 1970: 22).

  • DEFINITION

    Education designed to facilitate learning by individuals who, for a wide variety of reasons, require additional support and adaptive pedagogical methods in order to participate and meet learning objectives in an education programme. Reasons may include (but are not limited to) disadvantages in physical, behavioural, intellectual, emotional and social capacities. Education programmes in special needs education may follow a similar curriculum as that offered in the parallel regular education system, but they take individual needs into account by providing specific resources (e.g. specially-trained personnel, equipment or space) and, if appropriate, modified educational content or learning objectives. These programmes can be offered to individual students within already-existing education programmes or as a separate class in the same or separate educational institutions.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    State educational planners can use a variety of mechanisms to control diverse educational structures so as to achieve particular objectives associated with a positive outcome. Just as there are debates concerning whether special-needs students should be educated in special schools with appropriate physical facilities and staff, or whether it is important for them and other students to be educated in ordinary schools, albeit with suitable support networks and services, so too there are similar debates among those concerned about how best to meet the needs of students from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds (Inglis, 2008: 57).

    Inglis, Christine. Planning for cultural diversity. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 87. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    A management tool to help an organization to improve its performance by ensuring that its members are working to the same goals and by continuously adjusting the direction of the organization to the changing environment on the basis of results obtained (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 10). , A major variant in education has been labeled 'strategic planning'. It has been used in several states and large cities in the United States. Systematically involoving all interested and potentially affected groups, it seeks to collectively construct policy options rather than to identify and evaluate them, and seeks consensus rather than accurate predictions of outcomes. The model is not rational analysis, prediction and control, but political decision-making (Farrell, 1994).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    One consequence of a relatively high turnover of international school heads, however, is the challenge it presents for strategic planning or long-term planning, particularly in a situation where turnover of board members is also relatively high (Hayden and Thompson, 2008: 62).

  • DEFINITION

    Summative evaluation is conducted at the end of an initiative (or a phase of that initiative) to determine the extent to which anticipated outcomes were produced. It is intended to provide information about the worth of the programme (UNDP, 2009: 137).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Summative evaluation was conducted as a pilot study after the package development was completed. All comments from the formative evaluation were reviewed and refinement of the package was done before proceeding to target users namely, junior library staffs and library users, of the package. The purpose of summative of evaluation is to get feedback from target users of the package in terms of instructional quality, content validity, clarity in instructional content, explanation and presentation of content; visual design, user interface design and multimedia design; audience consideration and learning progress (Sacchanand and Jaroenpuntaruk, 2006: 510).

  • DEFINITION

    All services whose main function is (1) to inspect, control, evaluate; and/or (2) advise, assist and support school heads and teachers.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Authorities may be able to improve efficiency by strengthening supervision. If distances prevent central authorities from checking rural schools, the task can perhaps be delegated to community members on school committees (Bray, 2009: 93).