Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The teacher takes pupils from all grades at the same time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Throughout Africa, descriptions of the conditions of one-teacher schools and multigrade classes reveal serious problems: make-shift facilities, lack of teaching materials, and no support for teachers. All of these factors complicate the lives and the task of rural teachers, who are often younger, less experienced and less qualified than their urban counterparts (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 43).

  • DEFINITION

    A school built to a design which does not include self contained classrooms (Martinho, 2012: 328).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The clearest example of this was seen in the open-plan school environments created during the 1960s and 1970s, which, as later research in both the UK and U.S. showed, were often not used for the child-centered, discovery learning for which they were intended (Woolner, Clark, Laing, Thomas, and Tiplady, 2012: 53).

  • DEFINITION

    Utilization of the outdoor environment to promote experiential learning and enrich the curriculum.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Outdoor education includes both environmental education and education for sustainable development, as they are a part of NCC. McRae (1990) has further divided outdoor education into knowledge focused outdoor teaching and learning, ecologically focused outdoor environmental education and outdoor leisure education that is focused on personal growth. In this study, outdoor education includes all these aspects, as these aspects are all part of an ordinary school day and National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2004) (Smeds, Jeronen, Kurppa and Vieraankivi, 2011: 268).

  • DEFINITION

    Products and services—tangible and intangible—delivered or provided (UNDP, 2009: 54).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    EQA mechanisms commonly focus on the perceived shortcomings of traditional quality assurance mechanisms. One of their main concerns is the quality of teaching and/or academic programmes, whereas earlier instruments tended to concentrate on the quality of research. Another growing concern is with outputs, linked to an overall change in the state’s steering policy. Governments tend to delegate more autonomy to these institutions and request ‘accountability’, i.e. a demonstration of valuable outcomes (Martin and Stella, 2007: 20).