Education that is institutionalised, intentional and planned through public organizations and recognised private bodies and – in their totality – constitute the formal education system of a country. Formal education programmes are thus recognised as such by the relevant national education authorities or equivalent authorities, e.g. any other institution in cooperation with the national or sub-national education authorities. Formal education consists mostly of initial education. Vocational education, special needs education and some parts of adult education are often recognised as being part of the formal education system.
UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.
EXAMPLE OF USE
Most empirical studies on the education-productivity relationship areconcerned with formal education. Yet education is not limited to theinstruction provided in schools, which means that part of the phenomenonis being ignored (IIEP and FAO,2003: 58)
IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003.
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Formative evaluation intends to improve performance, most often conducted during the implementation phase of projects or programmes (UNDP, 2009: 137).
EXAMPLE OF USE
Recommendations to advance coaching evaluation research include the creation of collaborative partnerships between the evaluation stakeholders (client, coach, client’s organization, and coaching organization) to facilitate the conducting of systematic formative evaluations, the collection of multi-source and multi-level data, and the inclusion of distal outcomes in evaluation plans (Ely et al, 2010: 3)., Formative evaluation in Guinea is provided by evaluators who make three visits per year to each funded team and many formal conferences and workshops serve to train teachers, facilitators, evaluators, regional co-ordinators and jury members for roles in the programme (Martin and Stella, 2007: 116).
A person is functionally literate/illiterate who can/cannot engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning of his or her group and community and also for enabling him or her to continue to use reading, writing and calculation for his or her own and the community’s development. (Definition originally approved in 1978 at UNESCO’s General Conference, and still in use today.)
UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.
EXAMPLE OF USE
Although the Work Oriented Adult Literacy Programme did not achieve the success expected – it was, after all, an experimental and pioneering effort – it did help to establish more firmly the principle of linking literacy instruction with uses directly relevant to the adult learner. Indeed, the phrase ‘functional literacy’ remains very much in use. The question for the educational planner – whether a government official or a member of a voluntary body – is what uses or functions will be relevant to which groups of adult learners? (Oxenham, 2008: 62).
Oxenham, John. Effective literacy programmes: options for policy-makers. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 91. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.