Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Attrition refers to leaving teaching altogether, either to take another job outside of teaching, for personal reasons as child rearing, health problems, family moves, and retirement (Cooper and Alvarado, 2006: 18).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teach for America and similar programmes in other countries are playing a key role in getting good teachers to disadvantaged areas, while underlining the need in such areas for the best possible teachers. However, they cannot be seen as the solution to improve learning outcomes for all. Not only is there a high attrition rate among these teachers – sometimes 80% or more by their third or fourth year of teaching – but they make up only about 0.2% of the 3.5 million teachers in the United States (UNESCO, 2014: 253).

  • DEFINITION

    A certificate stating that a teacher is qualified to instruct in specified grades, subjects, or school units.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    College teaching certificate programs are developing in the United States to help better prepare graduate students who wish to become lecturers and professors. Iowa State University’s GSTC aims to enhance the professional development of graduate students who want to become professors in four-year schools of higher education emphasizing teaching (Roberts, 2014: 113).

  • DEFINITION

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While in many countries teacher allocation officially depends directly on student enrolment numbers, with minimum and maximum class sizes per school, actual teacher deployment often does not match student numbers (UNESCO, 2014: 249).

  • DEFINITION

    Planning of [teaching] manpower provision.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Both recruiting and source countries should manage teacher supply and demand within the context of organized recruitment which includes effective strategies to improve the attractiveness of teaching as a profession, and to ensure the recruitment and retention of teachers in areas of strategic importance (ILO, 2012: 14).

  • DEFINITION

    An institution where teachers acquire theoretical and practical knowledge related to teaching.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Ethiopia, where the gender parity index in primary education increased by 43% from 1999 to 2005, raised the number of female teachers through admissions quotas at teacher-training colleges (UNESCO, 2008: 129).

  • DEFINITION

    Decision by the competent authority to assign teachers to an educational institution other than the one they are currently working at.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teacher transfers have not been common in Indonesia, so the adoption of effective transfer systems at district level would be crucial. For instance, the Education Office in the district of Gorontalo identified 634 of its 5,000 teachers who could be redeployed, and implemented measures such as merging small schools, introducing multigrade teaching in schools with fewer than 90 students and providing incentives for teachers to move to remote schools (UNESCO, 2014: 253).

  • DEFINITION

    Utilisation rate the actual number of teaching hours compared to the theoretical duration of use: U. T. = (actual number of periods taught divided by theoretical number of periods to be taught on school premises) x 100. Example: If, in theory, each classroom can be used for 50 instructional periods per week, and if that room is used for just 25 periods per week, its utilisation rate is (25/50) x 100 = 50 %. This means that the number of pupils could double without having to build a new classroom. This rate can be calculated for each room, for each type of room (general education or specialised instruction) or for the whole set of classrooms in a school. It is hard to push a utilisation rate beyond 80 %, due to the difficulties in organising timetables for the different courses. Furthermore, this is not advisable: if the rate is 80 % utilisation, this already means dropping the principle of each class having its own classroom. Having said that, it is indispensable to leave one classroom free at all times so that pupils can use it for study during free periods (IIEP definition). , Optimal teacher utilization means the use of teachers in a way that responds to both the needs and constraints of the education system and teachers' own capacities and aspirations (Göttelman-Duret, 2000: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Drawing upon the results of relevant studies and reports on several developing countries, the monograph explores, in particular, two central aspects of efficient teacher utilization: the first relates to optimal staff allocation i.e. how to make sure that teachers, especially qualified and experienced, are deployed to where they are most needed, at the same time, taking into account their individual characteristics and preferences; the second crucial aspect of optimizing the utilization of teachers concerns the enhancing of teacher's commitment to quality-seeking and self-development through appropriate career patterns, promotion systems and other incentives (Thompson, 1995: vii).

  • DEFINITION

    This staff sub-category includes non-professional personnel who support teachers in providing instruction to students such as teachers’ aides and other paraprofessional personnel who are employed on a full-time or part-time basis by an education system. It excludes student teachers or other personnel who do not get paid for their employment.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Targeted additional support for students via trained teaching assistants is another way of improving learning for students at risk of falling behind. An initial early reading intervention delivered by teaching assistants in London schools in the United Kingdom was found to improve reading skills and have longer-term positive effects for children with poor literacy skills (UNESCO, 2014: 34).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes designed mainly to prepare students for direct entry into a particular occupation or trade (or class of occupations or trades).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It was during this period that the human capital theory had a great impact on education policies with its emphasis on vocational and technical training adapted to labour-market needs. This, together with poor progress in spreading literacy, in particular through adult literacy programmes, resulted in UNESCO and UNDP deciding, in 1964, to adopt a new work-oriented functional literacy approach (Lind, 2008: 49).

  • DEFINITION

    Tertiary education builds on secondary education, providing learning activities in specialised fields of education. It aims at learning at a high level of complexity and specialisation. Tertiary education includes what is commonly understood as academic education but also includes advanced vocational or professional education (ISCED levels 5 to 8).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Agencies adopt and publish policies that prioritize ‘schooling’ (including secondary education) rather than only primary education, and promote access to tertiary education including through open and distance learning (Sinclair, 2002: 130).

  • DEFINITION

    Skills that are typically considered as not specifically related to a particular job, task, academic discipline or area of knowledge and that can be used in a wide variety of situations and work settings (for example, organizational skills).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    According to the human capital theory (Becker, 1962; 1964) and in perfect labour market conditions, employers are only interested in paying for training that leads to the acquisition of specifi c skills that could be valuable to the fi rm, whereas individuals are also interested in developing general (or transferable) skills that are widely valued in the labour market as well as in other contexts (i.e. health, home, community and leisure) (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 84).

  • DEFINITION

    The move from education or training to employment, covering the period between leaving education and entering the labour market.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Many studies point to the importance of tracking and vocational orientation for the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. In their influential cross-national study on the school-to-work transition, Yossi Shavit and Walter Mu¨ller (1998) find that secondary vocational educational degrees reduce the odds of unemployment (Bol and Van de Werfhorst, 2013: 290).

  • DEFINITION

    The transition rate calculates the number of new pupils entering a given level of education as a percentage of the pupils who were at the end of the previous level the previous year. For example, one might wish to calculate the transition rate from primary to secondary education, from lower to upper secondary, or from secondary to higher education; also one might calculate transition rates for different groups – from different areas, from different socio-economic backgrounds, by gender and so on.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the Republic of Korea, all pupils make the transition from primary to lower secondary education, while this is the case for fewer than three out of four pupils (74%) in Myanmar. A similar trend is found in South and West Asia, with Bhutan reaching a transition rate of 98% while Pakistan stands at 75% (UIS-UNESCO, 2011: 15).