Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Selection or classification of students for schools, classes, or other educational programs based on differences in ability or achievement.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The field of education is confronted with widely varying forms of demand and target groups. The massive spread of education is a reality, no less in the North than in the South, even though school enrolment rates sometimes still differ very markedly. Unification of the formal arrangements for basic education has also tended to diversify school intake and to make the task of teaching in most schools more complex. In this context, ability grouping in schools may seem an option based on a fairly rational organizational approach (Gamoran et al., 1995) and on the educational assumption that, by grouping similar students together, it will be easier to ensure that their needs are properly met (Dupriez, 2010: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    Liberty of educational institutions to decide courses and research, and of teachers to teach subjects, without outside coercion.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    However, the notion of transformation as a more complex metaphor for social and educational change is invoked in order to ensure that the equity challenges are addressed within a framework that values, for example, curriculum reform, changes in institutional culture, innovative scholarship, academic freedom, and public good engagement as much as it does diversity in all its forms (Lange and Singh, 2010: 57).

  • DEFINITION

    An education or training programme that progresses the learning of trainees/students at a faster rate than usual.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Most accelerated learning programmes (ALP) are 'catch up' initiatives to assist older children/ youth, who have missed years of schooling, to complete their basic education and to obtain educational qualifications in a relatively short period of time. For example, an ALP can be a three-year programme that condenses six years of primary schooling (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 215)., Accelerated learning programmes can help provide a second chance to children and adolescents, provided government and employers recognize such programmes as legitimate for school and work. The Jóvenes programmes in Latin America are one example (UNESCO, 2010: 12).

  • DEFINITION

    Access to education includes: on-schedule  enrolment  and  progression  at  an  appropriate  age, regular  attendance,  learning consistent with national achievement norms, a learning environment that is safe enough to allow learning to take place, and opportunities to learn that are equitably distributed (Lewin, 2015: 29).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where the quality of learning and teaching varies widely, and where it is rationed by price or by other factors that constrain access, it is important to ensure that improvements in access to education are equitable and do not increase learning opportunity for some at the expense of others. Enhanced equity is an essential condition of an expanded vision of access (Lewin, 2015: 38).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Accountability is a process, aimed at helping actors meet responsibilities and reach goals. Individuals or institutions are obliged, on the basis of a legal, political, social or moral justification, to provide an account of how they met clearly defined responsibilities.

    UNESCO. Accountability in education: meeting our commitments; Global education monitoring report, 2017/8. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where officers feel a sense of accountability, organizations tend to function better. Efforts to strengthen accountability may be counterproductive, however, if officers feel isolated and unsupported. Unfortunately, few ministries have developed a genuine staff development programme and nor do they incite their staff members to take personal initiative in this regard. De-professionalization and demotivation of the civil service is a real risk, if the strengthening of external accountability is not accompanied by efforts towards professional development (De Grauwe, 2009: 16).

    De Grauwe, Anton. Without capacity, there is no development. Rethinking capacity development. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2009.

  • DEFINITION

    Performance on standardized tests or examinations that measure knowledge or competence in a specific subject area. The term is sometimes used as an indication of education quality within an education system or when comparing a group of schools.

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Because reading is so fundamental to overall literacy and the learning of the other subjects, poor reading performance is an obstacle, in itself, to secondary school academic achievement and further education (OECD, 2009: 116).

  • DEFINITION

    Academic performance disparity (as measured by educational indicators such as grades, graduation rates, standardized test scores, college admission, course selection) between or among student groups. The groups may be defined by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, English language proficiency, gender, geographic location, etc.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Radio and television programming can improve learning and narrow achievement gaps for disadvantaged children, particularly those in isolated or underserved settings (UNESCO, 2014: 291).

  • DEFINITION

    Achievement tests are designed to measure the knowledge and skills students learned in school or to determine the academic progress they have made over a period of time. The tests may also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a schools and teachers, or identify the appropriate academic placement for a student—i.e., what courses or programs may be deemed most suitable, or what forms of academic support they may need. Achievement tests are “backward-looking” in that they measure how well students have learned what they were expected to learn.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    However, the school feeding programme in Bangladesh, which has operated since 2002 in chronically food-insecure areas, has been evaluated and shown to be effective. In addition to increased enrolment and completion rates, improvements in achievement tests were recorded by children receiving fortified biscuits, after controlling for other factors. Participating children in grade 5 scored 15.7 percentage points overall above non-participating children (UNESCO, 2008: 124).

  • DEFINITION

    Enrolment of the official age group for a given level of education either at that level or the levels above, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The inclusion of the ECCE in an extended EDI tends to pull down its value in many countries. For example, Tajikistan has a high EDI score (0.977), but falls to the middle category with an extended EDI score of 0.908 because it has a high stunting rate (30%) and a very low pre-primary education adjusted net enrolment ratio (26%) (UNESCO. 2014: 309).

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of pupils of official primary school entrance age who are enrolled in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age. It is the equivalent of the Age-specific enrolment rate of official primary entrance age. It measures the actual level of access to primary education of the population of the official primary school entrance age.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Children are more likely to complete primary schooling if they enter at the right age. The global adjusted net intake rate for the first year of primary school increased between 1999 and 2011, but only slightly, from 81% to 86% – and rose by less than one percentage point over the last four years of the period (UNESCO, 2014: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    To calculate the cohort admission rate you can choose a given cohort - e.g. that born 10 years ago - follow it for several consecutive years and account for the members of this cohort who successively sooner or later enter school. It is (also) possible, if one has for several years the age-specific admission rates, to reconstruct a cohort admission rate.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A more appropriate means of measuring admissions is the cohort admission rate. This is obtained by monitoring a cohort of children born in the same year and counting how many are admitted to school successively at 5 years of age, then 6 years, then 7 years, etc. By following such a cohort, we obtain a more accurate view of real admissions and can ensure that we have arrived at a figure for total admissions. Chau, T. 2003. Fundamenals of Educational Planning - 72: Demographic aspects of educational planning. Paris: IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Education specifically targeted at individuals who are regarded as adults by their society to improve their technical or professional qualifications, further develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge with the purpose to complete a level of formal education, or to acquire, refresh or update their knowledge, skills and competencies in a particular field. This also includes what may be referred to as ‘continuing education’, ‘recurrent education’ or ‘second chance education’.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Latin America and the Caribbean was one of the first regions to introduce the category of young people into the concept of adult education in the 1980s, due to their growing presence in educational programmes designed for adults. Youth and adult education continues to be the most representative conceptual classification covering what is principally second-chance or compensatory schooling, including literacy. (UIL, 2017: 27)

    UIL. CONFINTEA VI Mid-Term Review 2017: progress, challenges, and opportunities; the status of adult learning and education; summary of the regional reports. Hamburg: UIL, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    Positive action taken to overcome underrepresentation of certains groups (generally women and members of minority groups) in employment (including career advancement programs) and in the make-up of student bodies, as compared to the composition of the area population.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Compensatory programmes were devised in developed countries as part of the formal education system when the conclusion was reached that providing a genuine equality of chances was not just a question of giving the same resources and instruction to all students. On the contrary, it was deemed necessary to concentrate more effort on students in difficulty, and to provide their schools with more resources. These ‘affirmative action’ programmes were adapted and introduced in many developing countries as well, especially in Latin America (Atchoarena, Grauwe and Sylla, 2000: 7).

  • DEFINITION

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an inter-governmental commitment and “a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”. It comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are “integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education is central to the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Within the comprehensive 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, education is essentially articulated as a stand-alone goal (SDG4) with its 7 outcome targets and 3 means of implementation (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

  • DEFINITION

    General term for schemes which offer an alternative to traditional institutional education or for movements which reject the notion of formal schooling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools (Wilson, Stemp and McGinty, 2013: 32)

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of completed years of education of a country's population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A closer look at the data, however, reveals notable differences and exceptions showing that more education does not necessarily lead to increased emissions. In China in 2008, when the average level of education was seven years, the level of emissions per capita was one-third of what the level in the United States was at a similar average level of education, in 1950 (UNESCO, 2014: 178).

  • DEFINITION

    The number of hours teachers are formally required to teach.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A teacher of general subjects in upper secondary education has an average teaching load of 664 hours per year. Teaching time exceeds 800 hours in only six countries: Argentina, Australia, Chile, Mexico, Scotland and the United States. In contrast, teachers are required to teach less than 500 hours per year in Denmark, Greece and the Russian Federation. Teachers in Denmark, Finland, Greece, Israel, Japan, Korea, Norway and the Russian Federation teach for three hours or less per day, on average, compared to more than five hours in Chile and the United States and up to eight hours in Argentina. Including breaks between classes in teaching time in some countries, but not in others, may explain some of these differences (OECD, 2013: 397).