Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Programmes that, in addition to providing children with care, offer a structured and purposeful set of learning activities either in a formal institution (pre-primary or ISCED 0) or as part of a non-formal child development programme. ECCE programmes are normally designed for children from age 3 and include organized learning activities that constitute, on average, the equivalent of at least 2 hours per day and 100 days per year.

    UNESCO. Strong foundations: early childhood care and education; EFA global monitoring report, 2007. Paris: UNESCO, 2007.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Along with expanding enrollment and attention paid to early childhood care and education (ECCE) worldwide, there is a growing pre-primary workforce. In 2009, this workforce stood at more than 7.5 million people, with the largest growth seen in South and West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (ILO, 2012). Despite progress, the availability of trained pre-primary teachers still lags behind that of the primary workforce (Neuman, Josephson and Chua, 2015: 29).

    Neuman, Michelle J., Kimberly Josephson, and Peck Gee Chua. A Review of the literature: early childhood care and education (ECCE) personnel in low- and middle-income countries. Early childhood care and education working papers series, 4. Paris: UNESCO, 2015. 

  • DEFINITION

    Early childhood education provides learning and educational activities with a holistic approach to support children’s early cognitive, physical, social and emotional development and introduce young children to organized instruction outside of the family context to develop some of the skills needed for academic readiness and to prepare them for entry into primary education.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If the vicious cycle of inequality is to be broken, then child care and education have to start very early, before primary school. In most developing countries, early childhood education is restricted to urban middle-class children. Children from rural  areas and low-income families not only are denied access to this kind of education, but they enter primary school later than other children. (Caillods, 2006: 2)

    Caillods, Françoise. « Quality and equality ». IIEP newsletter 24, no 1 (2006): 2.

  • DEFINITION

    [A] continuous period of education such as those of primary, secondary and higher education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A cluster of schools in Namibia consists of five to seven schools on average. Most schools are basic education schools, but some also contain upper grades. The school with the most resources and complete education cycle serves as the cluster centre. The cluster centre should be central and accessible to its satellite schools and ideally have access to other commercial services. Cluster centres are the focal point of contact and coordination between cluster schools. They act as meeting places and sites for in-service training, since they contain materials such as audio-visual aids and duplicating facilities (Giordano, 2008: 52). , At the World Conference on Education for All in 1990, most developing countries reaffirmed their commitment to providing universal access to a first cycle of education to their school-age children. As a result, primary enrolments throughout the developing world have grown, fuelled by grants, expanded lending and by substantial domestic allocations of resources. Little attention was paid at the conference to the consequences of enrolment expansion in relation to the resources needed for secondary-schools. However, it was clear then that in many developing countries secondary school participation rates could not grow rapidly without changes in the structure and nature of their financing (Lewin and Caillods, 2001: 1).

  • DEFINITION

    The educational deprivation indicator measures the resources available for children’s learning. Fifteen-year-old children are considered deprived when they have fewer than four of eight basic items. The eight items include a desk to study, a quiet place to work, a computer for schoolwork, educational software, an internet connection, a calculator, a dictionary, and school textbooks (OECD, 2009: 35).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For instance in the material well-being domain Bulgaria and Romania are included via the deprivation measures derived from PISA 2009. In both countries very high levels of child educational deprivation are experienced. We can predict that Slovakia, which performs poorly in terms of deprivation outcomes but well in terms of worklessness and poverty to give a middling score, will drop ranks on this domain if Bulgaria and Romania are excluded (Bradshaw and Richardson, 2009: 345).

  • DEFINITION

    Advising pupils or students on their educational progress, on career opportunities, or personal difficulties or anxieties.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Career information, guidance and counselling services are intended to assist individuals with their career management. They often overlap with other forms of personal services, such as job placement, personal counselling, community-based personal mentoring, welfare advice and educational psychology. Frequently, these other services are delivered by people who also deliver career information, guidance and counselling, but there are often separate guidance services that do not provide career information, guidance or counselling (UNESCO, 2002: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    [The] resources [which] need to be provided [for schools] : teachers, a school building, a classroom, equipment, school furniture and textbooks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The primary concern of these stakeholders is the provision or production of the inputs to the education process. Because of economies of scale, most of these Producers are national organizations, even in countries with a high degree of decentralization. In the USA, in which school districts can use whatever textbook they want, most districts buy complete sets covering all grades from one of five national publishers (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 79).

  • DEFINITION

    Macro-planning [in education] focuses on the broad dimensions of the system and its relationships with the economy and society (Coombs, 1970: 55).

    Coombs, Philip. What is educational planning? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 1. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1970. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased private non-state engagement was encouraged by macro-planning processes and frameworks that were enthusiastic about such involvement, particularly through public-private partnerships (PPPs) (Srivastava, 2014).

    Srivastava, Prachi. « Under-financing education and the rise of the private sector: the case of India ». In Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    An EMIS can be defined as ‘a system for the collection, integration, processing, maintenance and dissemination of data and information to support decision-making, policy-analysis and formulation, planning, monitoring and management at all levels of an education system. It is a system of people, technology, models, methods, processes, procedures, rules and regulations that function together to provide education leaders, decision-makers and managers at all levels with a comprehensive, integrated set of relevant, reliable, unambiguous and timely data and information to support them in completion of their responsibilities’ (UNESCO, 2008: 101).

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The development of an effective EMIS is a complex and expensive undertaking under the best of circumstances. During emergencies, it is even more challenging because multiple organizations are generally involved in the provision of education, making it difficult to establish common data requirements and to coordinate data collection from the various organizations. In designing EMIS, therefore, it is important to consider the needs of all the groups that will rely on the information, including central ministry planners, officials of other national ministries (for example, finance), regional and district education officials, donors, and NGOs. Ultimately, for EMIS to be effective as a planning and management tool, national needs, not donor requirements, must be the primary force behind the development of the system. Despite the difficulties associated with the development of an EMIS, emergencies may provide an opportunity for establishing a better functioning EMIS than was in place before the crisis (IIEP, 2010: 156).

    IIEP. « Management capacity ». In Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    In the broadest sense, micro-planning covers all planning activities at sub-national level; that is, regional, local and institutional. Planning involves the future and has to do with the organisation and management of resources so as to enable the successful attainment of the set goals (…). Micro-planning is defined by its relationship with macro-planning. It is the expression of a desire to improve the operation of the education system by strengthening the planning work done at regional and local levels. It is a planning process that focuses on local characteristics and needs and builds local capacities. Micro-planning seeks to reach the objectives set at national level by assuring greater equality in the distribution of educational services, a better fit between these services and the needs of local communities, and the more efficient use of available resources. Micro-planning requires the participation of local communities in the planning process and this involvement can be a key to the success of the planned reforms at local level.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Micro-planning and information systems must be amended to better capture rural issues and trends. Developing access in an appropriate way requires reliable data on out-of-reach children. Remote and school-less areas are often not adequately covered in government surveys (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 396).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003. 

  • DEFINITION

    From the educational planner's point of view, output of given education cycle is defined as the number of pupils who successfully complete that cycle.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This assessment led the Hungarian authorities in the 1960s to set up a system based on a rather different approach to that used in the previous decade. The new system merely involved the mechanical matching of educational output to manpower needs. It adopted a comprehensive socio-economic approach covering a long period (15-20 years) and was largely based on demographic data to avoid imbalance between the long-term trends displayed by the education system, the economy and society. Hungary thus shifted from rigid, directive planning to more flexible and indicative planning (Bertrand, 2004).

  • DEFINITION

    Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society (Coombs, 1970: 14).

    Coombs, Philip. What is educational planning? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 1. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1970.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the beginning of the 1960s, educational planning was seen as a must for the newly independent countries in order to allow them to move ahead quickly and systematically with their human resource development. Planning Units were set up in Ministries of Education but were highly dependent on external expertise (IIEP, 2010: 9).

    Carron, Gabriel, Khalil Mahshi, Anton De Grauwe, Dorian Gay, and Sulagna Choudhuri. Strategic planning: concept and rationale. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    Official statements of goals to which the system of education is directed.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    On the contrary, the need for collecting data, evaluating the efficiency of existing programmes, undertaking a wide range of studies, exploring the future and fostering broad debate on these bases to guide educational policy and decision-making has become evenmore acute than before. One cannot make sensible policy choices without assessing the present situation, specifying the goals to be reached, marshalling the means to attain them and monitoring what has been accomplished. Hence planning is also a way to organize learning: by mapping, targeting, acting and correcting (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 5).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Regions, localities, etc., in need of special educational action.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The concrete design of the policy therefore needed to be determined at a decentralised level and should fall under the administrative responsibility of the municipalities or priority areas (areas requiring urgent attention with respect to educational disadvantages) (Driessen, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Applicability of what is taught to the needs and interest of students and society.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Relevance, in turn, is likely to produce higher levels of student involvement or engagement in learning (Anderson, 2004: 61).

  • DEFINITION

    Effects of the associated problems of repetition and dropping out.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Indeed, whether we are considering education as a social or a private investment, allowance must  be  made  for  the  fact  that  some  students  do  not  complete  a course while  others  repeat  parts  of  the  course  in  order  to  gain  a qualification. Ideally, separate cost-benefit calculations should be made for  dropouts,  repeaters  and  those who  complete  a  course  in  the minimum time. For despite the implications of the word ‘wastage’, it is likely that even an uncompleted course may yield some economic benefits that must be compared with the costs of one or two years’ education.  In  fact,  most  countries  do  not  have  data  that  permit measurement of the benefits associated with part of a course. As a result, the simplest solution is to calculate the average length of courses,allowing for dropouts and repeaters, and to use this as the basis for the calculation of total costs rather than the minimum or ‘normal’ length of courses. This will give the total cost that must be borne by society in order to produce a qualified student, or the average cost to the  individual  after  allowance  for  average  rates  of  repetition  and wastage (Woodhall, 2004: 33-34).

    Woodhall, M. 2004. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Although the term efficiency was coined by economists, it applies to all spheres of planned activities directed towards given objectives. In any activity, it should be possible to define one’s objectives, or, in other words, the output expected from that activity. To achieve the objectives thus defined, an individual or organisation has certain resources or inputs available and will seek to employ them in such a manner as to produce the desired outputs with minimum cost and effort. Efficiency is thus defined as the optimal relationship between inputs and outputs. An activity is being performed efficiently if a given output is obtained with a minimum of input, or, conversely, if a given input yields maximum output.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There are few really persuasive efficiency studies of multigrade education in developing countries (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    The total number of individuals registered as participants in a programme or activity.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Distance teacher training began over 40 years ago in developing countries. It was employed in the 1960s to cope with the growth of primary school enrolment (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 42).

  • DEFINITION

    The enrolment growth rate is expressed as a percentage of the difference in enrolment between two dates or two periods of time. If ‘N1’ is a first total enrolment for a given period (P1) and ‘N2’ is another total enrolment for another given period later in time (P2), then the enrolment growth rate is ‘(N2 –N1)/N1*100’.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Aggressive expansion policy designed to raise the country’s insignificant tertiary enrolment ratio to more respectable levels is producing results. Total tertiary enrolments in universities and nonuniversity tertiary institutions, both public and private, surged from 43,843 in 1997–98 to 147,954 in 2002–03 (Ministry of Education 1998, 2003), more than tripling in just five years. The annual enrolment growth rate of 28 per cent was possibly the highest in the world during this period. Private provision of tertiary education has been permitted by the government as a key component of this expansion strategy, and private tertiary institutions now host 24 per cent of all tertiary students (Ministry of Education 2003: 7) (Saint, 2004: 85).

  • DEFINITION

    Strictly speaking, projecting means extrapolating on the basis of past trends. Enrolments are projected on the assumption that the trend – whether growth or decline – will continue to evolve as it did in the past. A simple and rapid method to creating a projection is to estimate, on the basis of past statistics, an arithmetical or geometrical rate of increase (or decrease), which is then extended into the future by applying it to the most recent data values. Projections do not attempt to describe what will happen in the future. They only try to present what would happen if such and such conditions were to prevail.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Schools traditionally operated within fixed geographic boundaries; planners used local demographic data in combination with enrollment projection techniques to estimate the number of students a school was likely to serve. However, one of today’s educationalreform trends is school choice—as opposed to school assignment—rendering ineffective the traditional demographic method of projecting school enrollment numbers (Stevenson, 2006: 1).