Glossary

glossary

Find a definition

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Programmes that, in addition to providing children with care, offer a structured and purposeful set of learning activities either in a formal institution (pre-primary or ISCED 0) or as part of a non-formal child development programme. ECCE programmes are normally designed for children from age 3 and include organized learning activities that constitute, on average, the equivalent of at least 2 hours per day and 100 days per year.

    UNESCO. Strong foundations: early childhood care and education; EFA global monitoring report, 2007. Paris: UNESCO, 2007.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Along with expanding enrollment and attention paid to early childhood care and education (ECCE) worldwide, there is a growing pre-primary workforce. In 2009, this workforce stood at more than 7.5 million people, with the largest growth seen in South and West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (ILO, 2012). Despite progress, the availability of trained pre-primary teachers still lags behind that of the primary workforce (Neuman, Josephson and Chua, 2015: 29).

    Neuman, Michelle J., Kimberly Josephson, and Peck Gee Chua. A Review of the literature: early childhood care and education (ECCE) personnel in low- and middle-income countries. Early childhood care and education working papers series, 4. Paris: UNESCO, 2015. 

  • DEFINITION

    Early childhood education provides learning and educational activities with a holistic approach to support children’s early cognitive, physical, social and emotional development and introduce young children to organized instruction outside of the family context to develop some of the skills needed for academic readiness and to prepare them for entry into primary education.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If the vicious cycle of inequality is to be broken, then child care and education have to start very early, before primary school. In most developing countries, early childhood education is restricted to urban middle-class children. Children from rural  areas and low-income families not only are denied access to this kind of education, but they enter primary school later than other children. (Caillods, 2006: 2)

    Caillods, Françoise. « Quality and equality ». IIEP newsletter 24, no 1 (2006): 2.

  • DEFINITION

    [A] continuous period of education such as those of primary, secondary and higher education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A cluster of schools in Namibia consists of five to seven schools on average. Most schools are basic education schools, but some also contain upper grades. The school with the most resources and complete education cycle serves as the cluster centre. The cluster centre should be central and accessible to its satellite schools and ideally have access to other commercial services. Cluster centres are the focal point of contact and coordination between cluster schools. They act as meeting places and sites for in-service training, since they contain materials such as audio-visual aids and duplicating facilities (Giordano, 2008: 52). , At the World Conference on Education for All in 1990, most developing countries reaffirmed their commitment to providing universal access to a first cycle of education to their school-age children. As a result, primary enrolments throughout the developing world have grown, fuelled by grants, expanded lending and by substantial domestic allocations of resources. Little attention was paid at the conference to the consequences of enrolment expansion in relation to the resources needed for secondary-schools. However, it was clear then that in many developing countries secondary school participation rates could not grow rapidly without changes in the structure and nature of their financing (Lewin and Caillods, 2001: 1).

  • DEFINITION

    [The] resources [which] need to be provided [for schools] : teachers, a school building, a classroom, equipment, school furniture and textbooks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The primary concern of these stakeholders is the provision or production of the inputs to the education process. Because of economies of scale, most of these Producers are national organizations, even in countries with a high degree of decentralization. In the USA, in which school districts can use whatever textbook they want, most districts buy complete sets covering all grades from one of five national publishers (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 79).

  • DEFINITION

    Macro-planning [in education] focuses on the broad dimensions of the system and its relationships with the economy and society (Coombs, 1970: 55).

    Coombs, Philip. What is educational planning? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 1. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1970. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased private non-state engagement was encouraged by macro-planning processes and frameworks that were enthusiastic about such involvement, particularly through public-private partnerships (PPPs) (Srivastava, 2014).

    Srivastava, Prachi. « Under-financing education and the rise of the private sector: the case of India ». In Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    An EMIS can be defined as ‘a system for the collection, integration, processing, maintenance and dissemination of data and information to support decision-making, policy-analysis and formulation, planning, monitoring and management at all levels of an education system. It is a system of people, technology, models, methods, processes, procedures, rules and regulations that function together to provide education leaders, decision-makers and managers at all levels with a comprehensive, integrated set of relevant, reliable, unambiguous and timely data and information to support them in completion of their responsibilities’ (UNESCO, 2008: 101).

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The development of an effective EMIS is a complex and expensive undertaking under the best of circumstances. During emergencies, it is even more challenging because multiple organizations are generally involved in the provision of education, making it difficult to establish common data requirements and to coordinate data collection from the various organizations. In designing EMIS, therefore, it is important to consider the needs of all the groups that will rely on the information, including central ministry planners, officials of other national ministries (for example, finance), regional and district education officials, donors, and NGOs. Ultimately, for EMIS to be effective as a planning and management tool, national needs, not donor requirements, must be the primary force behind the development of the system. Despite the difficulties associated with the development of an EMIS, emergencies may provide an opportunity for establishing a better functioning EMIS than was in place before the crisis (IIEP, 2010: 156).

    IIEP. « Management capacity ». In Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    In the broadest sense, micro-planning covers all planning activities at sub-national level; that is, regional, local and institutional. Planning involves the future and has to do with the organisation and management of resources so as to enable the successful attainment of the set goals (…). Micro-planning is defined by its relationship with macro-planning. It is the expression of a desire to improve the operation of the education system by strengthening the planning work done at regional and local levels. It is a planning process that focuses on local characteristics and needs and builds local capacities. Micro-planning seeks to reach the objectives set at national level by assuring greater equality in the distribution of educational services, a better fit between these services and the needs of local communities, and the more efficient use of available resources. Micro-planning requires the participation of local communities in the planning process and this involvement can be a key to the success of the planned reforms at local level.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Micro-planning and information systems must be amended to better capture rural issues and trends. Developing access in an appropriate way requires reliable data on out-of-reach children. Remote and school-less areas are often not adequately covered in government surveys (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 396).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003. 

  • DEFINITION

    From the educational planner's point of view, output of given education cycle is defined as the number of pupils who successfully complete that cycle.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This assessment led the Hungarian authorities in the 1960s to set up a system based on a rather different approach to that used in the previous decade. The new system merely involved the mechanical matching of educational output to manpower needs. It adopted a comprehensive socio-economic approach covering a long period (15-20 years) and was largely based on demographic data to avoid imbalance between the long-term trends displayed by the education system, the economy and society. Hungary thus shifted from rigid, directive planning to more flexible and indicative planning (Bertrand, 2004).

  • DEFINITION

    Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society (Coombs, 1970: 14).

    Coombs, Philip. What is educational planning? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 1. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1970.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the beginning of the 1960s, educational planning was seen as a must for the newly independent countries in order to allow them to move ahead quickly and systematically with their human resource development. Planning Units were set up in Ministries of Education but were highly dependent on external expertise (IIEP, 2010: 9).

    Carron, Gabriel, Khalil Mahshi, Anton De Grauwe, Dorian Gay, and Sulagna Choudhuri. Strategic planning: concept and rationale. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    Official statements of goals to which the system of education is directed.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    On the contrary, the need for collecting data, evaluating the efficiency of existing programmes, undertaking a wide range of studies, exploring the future and fostering broad debate on these bases to guide educational policy and decision-making has become evenmore acute than before. One cannot make sensible policy choices without assessing the present situation, specifying the goals to be reached, marshalling the means to attain them and monitoring what has been accomplished. Hence planning is also a way to organize learning: by mapping, targeting, acting and correcting (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 5).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Regions, localities, etc., in need of special educational action.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The concrete design of the policy therefore needed to be determined at a decentralised level and should fall under the administrative responsibility of the municipalities or priority areas (areas requiring urgent attention with respect to educational disadvantages) (Driessen, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Effects of the associated problems of repetition and dropping out.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Indeed, whether we are considering education as a social or a private investment, allowance must  be  made  for  the  fact  that  some  students  do  not  complete  a course while  others  repeat  parts  of  the  course  in  order  to  gain  a qualification. Ideally, separate cost-benefit calculations should be made for  dropouts,  repeaters  and  those who  complete  a  course  in  the minimum time. For despite the implications of the word ‘wastage’, it is likely that even an uncompleted course may yield some economic benefits that must be compared with the costs of one or two years’ education.  In  fact,  most  countries  do  not  have  data  that  permit measurement of the benefits associated with part of a course. As a result, the simplest solution is to calculate the average length of courses,allowing for dropouts and repeaters, and to use this as the basis for the calculation of total costs rather than the minimum or ‘normal’ length of courses. This will give the total cost that must be borne by society in order to produce a qualified student, or the average cost to the  individual  after  allowance  for  average  rates  of  repetition  and wastage (Woodhall, 2004: 33-34).

    Woodhall, M. 2004. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

     

  • DEFINITION

    The total number of individuals registered as participants in a programme or activity.

    UNESCO Thesaurus.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Worldwide, enrolment in higher education has been growing steadily: Between 2000 and 2014, the number of students in higher education institutions more than doubled, rising from 100 million to 207 million. In the same period, the global higher education gross enrolment ratio increased from 19% to 34% (UNESCO, 2017:1).  

    UNESCO. 2017. Six ways to ensure higher education leaves no one behind. Policy Paper 30. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO

  • DEFINITION

    Age at which pupils or studentswould enter a given programme or level of educationassuming they had started at the official entrance agefor the lowest level, studied full-time throughout andprogressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade. The theoretical entrance age to a given programme or level may be very different fromthe actual or even the most common entrance age.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A necessary pre-condition for reaching UPE is to have all children of school admission age entering school. While policies adopted since Dakar have brought about major progress in access to schooling, school systems have not always been able to retain the large flow of new entrants, making achievement of universal primary enrolment and completion difficult (UNESCO, 2008: 53).

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    Age at which pupils or students would enter a given programme or level of education assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level, studied full-time throughout and progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade. The theoretical entrance age to a given programme or level may be very different from the actual or even the most common entrance age.

     

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A necessary pre-condition for reaching UPE is to have all children of school admission age entering school. While policies adopted since Dakar have brought about major progress in access to schooling, school systems have not always been able to retain the large flow of new entrants, making achievement of universal primary enrolment and completion difficult.

  • DEFINITION

    Equality deals with the actual patterns in which something, say income or education, is distributed among members of a particular group. One can statistically assess the equality of an income distribution by measuring deviations from some hypothetically completely equal situation (…) Several facets of [educational] equality can be distinguished: (a) equality of access: the probabilities of children from different social groupings getting into the school system; (b) equality of survival: the probabilities of children from various social groupings staying in the school system to some defined level, usually the end of a complete cycle; (c) equality of output: the probabilities that children from various social groupings will learn the same things to the same level at a defined point in the school system; (d) equality of outcome: the probabilities that children from various social groupings will live relatively similar lives subsequent to and as a result of schooling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The two major arguments concerning the development of schools catering specifi cally for certain groups of students relate to their dual roles of promoting equality and social incorporation (Inglis, 2008: 57).

  • +

    DEFINITION

    In education, the extent to which access and opportunities for children and adults are just and fair. This implies reduction of disparities based on gender, poverty, residence, ethnicity, language, and other characteristics.

    UNESCO.2008. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This criterion refers to a universally accepted goal of schooling: the quest for fairness in access to educational opportunities, resources and outcomes by gender, social class, race, language origins and geographical location of students. Equity can be assessed in terms of inputs – do all students receive an appropriate amount of funding and resources from the state, commensurate with their needs? Do students with special needs get appropriate schooling? Equity can also be assessed in terms of outcomes – do all students finish their schooling with sufficient skills and a fair opportunity to progress in life? (Belfield and Levin, 2002: 46).

    Belfield, Clive R., et Henry M. Levin. 2002. Education privatization: causes, consequences and planning implications. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 74. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Porlo general, este sistema consiste en una estructuracentral relativamente bien dotada y varias unidadesperiféricas de menor tamaño. Estas últimas puedenser escuelas con una sola aula, donde un docenteimparte clases a alumnos de diversos grados.

    UNESCO. 2010. Llegar a Los Marginados: Informe de Seguimiento de La EPT En El Mundo, 2010. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Los sistemas de escuelas satélites tienen que abordar problemas difíciles en lo tocante a la progresión de los alumnos de un grado al siguiente. La estructura del “núcleo” que se aplica en Bolivia trata de garantizar que los niños terminen la educación básica en el “consolidador” o colegio central. Otra estrategia consiste en crear escuelas satélites que ofrecen el ciclo integral de primaria, como las que se han implantado en comunidades rurales aisladas de Burkina Faso (UNESCO, 2010 : 217).

    UNESCO. 2010. Llegar a Los Marginados: Informe de Seguimiento de La EPT En El Mundo, 2010. Paris: UNESCO.
     
  • DEFINITION

    The external efficiency of an educational system is measured by looking at the success that the graduates of different levels of education have in the labour market relative to the costs of their education. For example, a system with low external efficiency may produce graduates that are not what society, the economy, or higher levels of education require. For example, they may be unemployable, too academically oriented, unwilling to work in rural areas, or prone to leave the country. It is important to have indicators of external efficiency not only to guide the allocation of government spending across levels of education, say pre-primary vs. upper secondary, but, also, across types of education. Thus, knowing the returns to general secondary vs. vocational secondary education would help guide a policy decision about whether or not to upgrade and expand vocational instruction.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Past reputation is not sufficient for financial sustainability even if heroic efforts are made in terms of internal efficiency (i.e. re-evaluating roles and responsibilities within the university) and external efficiency by increasing the employability of graduates (Williams and Kitaev, 2005: 134).