Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The practice of having students of the same or similar age assist with the instruction of other students who may need supplemental aid.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Findings indicated the effectiveness of peer tutoring in promoting significant gains in mathematics performance for both the tutor and the tutee, including with low achievers, mildly handicapped or socially disadvantaged children. Heller & Fantuzzo (1993) have demonstrated the effectiveness of combining peer tutoring with parent tutoring in mathematics with 10-11-year-old students (Topping, 2000: 21)

  • DEFINITION

    The emphasis of this type of monitoring is on school results. Its goal is mainly to stimulate competition between schools in order to promote academic achievement. The most common monitoring devices used are the regular measurement of learner achievement by standardized tests and examinations, combined with the publication of league tables and systematic (external) auditing of schools.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In order to achieve better efficiency and effectiveness in resource management and allocation, which SBM represents, some countries have delegated to schools a wide range of decisions related to resource allocations (the UK and the State of Victoria, Australia, are two examples). Education systems in these countries experienced the imposition of performance and accountability concepts on schools (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 32)., In the UK, the Financial Management Initiative, introduced in the early 1980s, embodied performance management but was assessed as being unsuccessful in influencing the allocation of public sector resources or increasing the degree of public accountability (Osbourne et al 1995; Sharifi and Bovaird 1995). While some performance measures were part of the Conservative adminstration’s management of the public sector, there has been a large rise in their use following the election of the Labour administration in 1997. Performance targets, their publication and the linking of such targets to the resources allocated by Treasury to government departments is now widespread in the UK public sector (Propper and Wilson, 2003: 251).

  • DEFINITION

    This approach, elaborated by the RAND Corporation, USA in the middle of 60s attempted to integrate in one system the elements of planning, programming and budgeting all together and was called “planning‐programming‐budgeting system” (PPBS). The abbreviation PPBS stands for the following three phases of this procedure: a) Planning is what may be called strategy in the sense that at this point the concern is to define, using prospective studies, the set of long term objectives for which various services will be responsible. b) Programming consists of defining the administrative steps and for organizing the necessary logistics for carrying out the set of actions in order to reach the selected objectives. In this phase, the resources in terms of human resources, capital (investment) and research are determined for the duration period covered. The programmes are laid out through a work plan that is, however, of only indicative value. c) Budgeting is the phase when the annual parts of the programme are translated into annual budget, taking into account the financial constraints. The idea is to adopt on a voluntary and progressive basis, within the administration, a coherent way of preparing, implementing, and controlling decisions made at each level of responsibility. In brief, the PPBS method is to set certain major objectives, to define programmes essential to these goals, to identify resources to the specific types of objectives and to systematically analyse the alternatives available.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It was presumed -- or perhaps desired, wished or ordained -- that evaluations at each level would dictate reallocations of resources between activities, according to the marginal impact yield of the additional money spent. PPBS' rigorous hierarchical structure, its grounding in economics -- the key question was: Where is the marginal dollar most effective?” --, its faith in the inherent comparability of various policy purposes on the basis of expenditures, their common denominator; its promises of both control and fine tuning of all government actions, plus continuous feedback and monitoring; all combined into a vision of an ultimate fusion of budgeting and policy-making. The promised end result was to be a smoothly functioning machine, highly transparent and stable, yet capable of constant reallocations resulting from continuous and integrated evaluations of the impact of policies. (…) All real attempts to implement PPBS as a system were soon abandoned, without much tearshedding. The reasons for the demise of policy-making as top-down-budgeting embodied in PPBS (and later on in ZBB) are well known. The most obvious is the enormous information overload it inflicts on any system, since the evaluation and continuous reassessment of a very wide range of policies requires vast financial resources and, more importantly, consumes a great deal of decision-makers' time (OCDE, 1996: 32).

  • DEFINITION

    Education followed by an individual after compulsory education, which sets minimum legal standards and duration of obligatory schooling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It requires that states admit refugees to post-compulsory education on conditions no less favourable than those applicable to aliens generally. The Protocols agreed in 1967 extend the coverage of the 1951 Convention worldwide (Sinclair, 2002: 35).

  • DEFINITION

    [Term encompassing] post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 4) and complete tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6) (UIS-UNESCO, 2011: 30).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The narrow donor base for support to basic education and the skewing of aid towards post-secondary education contribute to the problem (UNESCO, 2010: 217).

  • DEFINITION

    Post-secondary non-tertiary education provides learning experiences building on secondary education, preparing for labour market entry as well as tertiary education. It typically targets students who have completed upper secondary education (ISCED level 3), but who want to increase their opportunities either to enter the labour market or progress to tertiary education. Programmes are often not significantly more advanced than those at upper secondary education as they typically serve to broaden – rather than deepen – knowledge, skills and competencies. It therefore aims at learning below the high level of complexity characteristic of tertiary education (ISCED level 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In all OECD countries, adults with tertiary education earn considerably more than adults with below upper secondary education. Indeed, between 2000 and 2011, only in a few countries for which information is available for both years – Germany, Hungary and Switzerland – the earnings of adults with below upper secondary education have undergone some increase when compared with earnings of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (OECD, 2013: 101).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes at the initial stage of organized instruction, primarily designed to introduce very young children, aged at least 3 years, to a school-type environment and provide a bridge between home and school. Variously referred to as infant education, nursery education, pre-school education, kindergarten or early childhood education, such programmes are the more formal component of Early Childhood Care and Education. Upon completion of these programmes, children continue their education at ISCED 1 (primary education).

    UNESCO. 2007. Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education; EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Kazakhstan, pre-primary education classes prepare 5- or 6-year-olds who have never attended pre-school (especially in rural areas) for formal schooling through a 32-week crash course in school readiness. There is some concern that such classes focus too narrowly on academics kills; it is important to focus as well on children's emotional well-being, which is vital to their adjustment to primary schooling (Choi, 2006). France's lieux passerelles, ‘crossing places’ for children with no experience of early childhood activities outside the home, are designed to foster socialization with peers and transition from home to pre-school through structured activities and free play. Parents, often from poor, immigrant backgrounds, get staff support in separating from their children, meeting other parents, and taking a role in their children’s education (Neuman and Peer, 2002). Though the focus is on transition from home to the école maternelle (pre-school) –the first contact with the school system for many immigrant families – similar activities can be adapted to transition to primary school (UNESCO, 2006: 164).

    UNESCO. 2007. Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education; EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007. Paris: UNESCO.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Teacher education before entering a classroom or other educational site as a fully responsible teacher (ILO, 2012: 7).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teacher education, however, must go well beyond the pre-service programme if teacher effectiveness is to continue to improve. Pre- service programmes, no matter how good they are, can only produce very good novice teachers (Anderson, 2004: 115).

  • DEFINITION

    Proxy measure of primary school completion. It focuses on children who have access to school, measuring how many successfully complete it. The primary cohort completion rate is the product of the survival rate to the last grade and the percentage of those in the last grade who successfully graduate.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    An alternative view, while apparently different, is actually quite closely related. Analyses of labour market implications and the rate of return to schooling in developing countries suggest strongly that schooling is a very good investment. A year of schooling typically shows a 25-30 percent real rate of return. Such a return often looks noticeably better than other investment alternatives. At the same time, school completion rates in low-income countries are very low. These two facts do not go together. If it is such a high rate of return activity, why aren’t people taking advantage of those high returns? (Hanushek, 2005: 24). , In 2004, only 62.9 percent of the new entrants in P1 had the ‘correct’ age of 6-7 years. A total of 6.2 percent of the new entrants were between 10 and 12 years old. Boys appear to be more likely to enrol at an older age than girls. The 2002 census showed that over 80 per cent of persons aged 13 years were still attending primary school; the percentage of those aged 15 and over was still 7 percent (UBOS, 2006a). At the same time there has also been a significant under-age enrolment: 14.5 percent in 2004 (MoES-EMIS data, 2004). MoES, from its side, has accepted continued over-age enrolment in primary schools, to the extent that many 12-year-olds are still admitted into Primary 1. Though there are no data, it is very likely that a larger percentage of a Primary 1 cohort eventually completes primary school than official completion rates suggest (Hoppers, 2008: 33).

  • DEFINITION

    Primary education provides learning and educational activities typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics (i.e. literacy and numeracy) and establish a solid foundation for learning and understanding core areas of knowledge and personal development, preparing for lower secondary education. It focuses on learning at a basic level of complexity with little, if any, specialisation (ISCED level 1).

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Slightly more than twenty million repeaters in primary education in Latin American countries (some 30 per cent of enrolments) implies that the annual cost of poor quality, in terms of repetition alone, is close to US$3.3 billion (Schiefelbein, 1991b), given that the average cost per primary school pupil is nearly US$161 (Schiefelbein, 1992: 28).

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto. Redefining basic education for Latin America: lessons to be learned from the Colombian Escuela Nueva. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 42. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1992.

  • DEFINITION

    Institutions that are not operated by public authorities but are controlled and managed, whether for profit, or not, by private bodies such as non-governmental organizations, religious bodies, special interest groups, foundations or business enterprises.

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    All diagnoses of the situation of Latin American education indicate that as regards quality and equity the promises have not been kept. The studies have highlighted: the gap between public and private schools and the ensuing difference in achievement levels; high repetition rates; early dropout and low achievement among the poorest populations; over-centralization and a lack of school autonomy; poor working conditions for teachers and difficulties in attracting young people to the profession; learning programmes that do not ensure the acquisition of indispensable life skills; and, finally, insufficient funding (Vaillant, 2005: 36).

  • DEFINITION

    Private supplementary tutoring in pre-university education is defined as tutoring in academic subjects (such as language and mathematics) provided by tutors for financial gain and additional to the provision of mainstream schooling (Bray, 1999). It usually takes place outside school hours, often in separate premises. It excludes tutoring in extracurricular subjects and voluntary help. It is proposed by the mainstream teacher of the pupils or by another teacher and is variable in intensity (often according to family income). A distinction should be made between ‘one-on-one private tutoring’offered by individuals; and ‘preparatory courses’ offered by institutions (Hallak and Poisson, 2007: 257).

    Hallak, Jacques, and Muriel Poisson. Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: what can be done? Ethics and corruption in education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2007. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    When teachers engage in private tutoring of their own students, the poorest students suffer most because their families cannot afford tutoring and their teacher is often spending less time covering the curriculum in the classroom (UNESCO, 2014: 303).

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    Education supported in part or entirely by taxation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In other countries, private schools are a way to avoid integrating with public school students. In part, social cohesion may be maintained where private schools that accept public funds are under strict public regulations (as is the case in the Netherlands) (Belfield and Levin, 2003: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    Total current and capital expenditure on education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities. Household contributions are excluded. The term covers public expenditure for both public and private institutions.

    UNESCO. 2014. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Many of the earliest studies of the rate of return to educational investment were designed to measure the contribution of education to economic growth and the widely publicized conclusions - that human capital contributes to economic growth just as surely as physical capital and that education is a profitable investment - were used by governments both in developing and advanced countries to justify increased public expenditure on education (Woodhall, 2004: 103).

    Woodhall, M. 2004. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Calculated by dividing the number of students enrolled by the number of classes. It should be noted that class size is difficult to define when instruction time is organised in small groups that may change in size according to the subjects studied. At the upper secondary level, where students may attend several classes depending on the subject area, measurement and comparison of class sizes should be carried out with caution.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Small schools from different villages were encouraged to come together voluntarily in order to adhere to minimum pupil/class ratios and provide the entire primary cycle (Giordano, 2008: 82).

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of pupils per teacher at a specific level of education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Between 1999 and 2011, the pupil/teacher ratio in primary education increased by at least 20% in nine countries. By contrast, it fell by at least 20% in 60 countries. Congo, Ethiopia and Mali more than doubled primary school enrolment and yet decreased their pupil/teacher ratios by more than 10 pupils per teacher (UNESCO, 2014: 5).