Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Non-profit entity that consists of learners’ parents (or their legal guardians), teachers and other administrative school staff. The aim of a PTA is usually to promote participation of parents (or guardians) in school-level decision making and sponsor or facilitate fundraising initiatives for supplemental educational materials.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As has already been noted, teachers themselves must undergo a learning process if they are to be successful in teaching about HIV/ AIDS and sexual health. Given the scale of the problem, this can be effected only within the school. Hence the school becomes a centre for the dissemination of messages about HIV/AIDS, not merely for its students but also for its staff. There is no reason why the process should stop there. Industry invests considerable resources, mostly by way of staff time, in educating its staff about the disease. Schools could learn from this, extending their educational services in this domain to non-teaching staff, to the families of teachers and other school staff, and ultimately to the members of parent-teacher associations and their dependants (Kelly, 2000: 85).

  • DEFINITION

    Education followed by an individual after compulsory education, which sets minimum legal standards and duration of obligatory schooling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It requires that states admit refugees to post-compulsory education on conditions no less favourable than those applicable to aliens generally. The Protocols agreed in 1967 extend the coverage of the 1951 Convention worldwide (Sinclair, 2002: 35).

  • DEFINITION

    [Term encompassing] post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 4) and complete tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6) (UIS-UNESCO, 2011: 30).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The narrow donor base for support to basic education and the skewing of aid towards post-secondary education contribute to the problem (UNESCO, 2010: 217).

  • DEFINITION

    Post-secondary non-tertiary education provides learning experiences building on secondary education, preparing for labour market entry as well as tertiary education. It typically targets students who have completed upper secondary education (ISCED level 3), but who want to increase their opportunities either to enter the labour market or progress to tertiary education. Programmes are often not significantly more advanced than those at upper secondary education as they typically serve to broaden – rather than deepen – knowledge, skills and competencies. It therefore aims at learning below the high level of complexity characteristic of tertiary education (ISCED level 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In all OECD countries, adults with tertiary education earn considerably more than adults with below upper secondary education. Indeed, between 2000 and 2011, only in a few countries for which information is available for both years – Germany, Hungary and Switzerland – the earnings of adults with below upper secondary education have undergone some increase when compared with earnings of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (OECD, 2013: 101).

  • DEFINITION

    Teacher education before entering a classroom or other educational site as a fully responsible teacher (ILO, 2012: 7).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teacher education, however, must go well beyond the pre-service programme if teacher effectiveness is to continue to improve. Pre- service programmes, no matter how good they are, can only produce very good novice teachers (Anderson, 2004: 115).

  • DEFINITION

    Pre-vocational or pre-technical education programmes are mainly designed to introduce participants to the world of work and to prepare them for entry into further vocational or technical education programmes. Successful completion of such programmes does not lead to a vocational or technical qualification that is directly relevant to the labour market. For a programme to be considered as pre-vocational or pretechnical education, at least 25% of its content has to be vocational or technical. (OECD, 2013: 266)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Adolescents who are unable to get an apprenticeship receive pre-vocational training to improve preparedness for the workplace. These programmes last one year, with the intention of increasing the student’s interest in a particular field, and providing them with some of the general vocational skills needed to get into that field. The aim of these programmes is to attain a standard apprenticeship after the one-year programme (Gebhardt, Tretter, Schwab, and Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2011).

  • DEFINITION

    Primary education provides learning and educational activities typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics (i.e. literacy and numeracy) and establish a solid foundation for learning and understanding core areas of knowledge and personal development, preparing for lower secondary education. It focuses on learning at a basic level of complexity with little, if any, specialisation (ISCED level 1).

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Slightly more than twenty million repeaters in primary education in Latin American countries (some 30 per cent of enrolments) implies that the annual cost of poor quality, in terms of repetition alone, is close to US$3.3 billion (Schiefelbein, 1991b), given that the average cost per primary school pupil is nearly US$161 (Schiefelbein, 1992: 28).

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto. Redefining basic education for Latin America: lessons to be learned from the Colombian Escuela Nueva. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 42. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1992.

  • DEFINITION

    Institutions that are not operated by public authorities but are controlled and managed, whether for profit, or not, by private bodies such as non-governmental organizations, religious bodies, special interest groups, foundations or business enterprises.

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    All diagnoses of the situation of Latin American education indicate that as regards quality and equity the promises have not been kept. The studies have highlighted: the gap between public and private schools and the ensuing difference in achievement levels; high repetition rates; early dropout and low achievement among the poorest populations; over-centralization and a lack of school autonomy; poor working conditions for teachers and difficulties in attracting young people to the profession; learning programmes that do not ensure the acquisition of indispensable life skills; and, finally, insufficient funding (Vaillant, 2005: 36).

  • DEFINITION

    Private supplementary tutoring in pre-university education is defined as tutoring in academic subjects (such as language and mathematics) provided by tutors for financial gain and additional to the provision of mainstream schooling (Bray, 1999). It usually takes place outside school hours, often in separate premises. It excludes tutoring in extracurricular subjects and voluntary help. It is proposed by the mainstream teacher of the pupils or by another teacher and is variable in intensity (often according to family income). A distinction should be made between ‘one-on-one private tutoring’offered by individuals; and ‘preparatory courses’ offered by institutions (Hallak and Poisson, 2007: 257).

    Hallak, Jacques, and Muriel Poisson. Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: what can be done? Ethics and corruption in education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2007. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    When teachers engage in private tutoring of their own students, the poorest students suffer most because their families cannot afford tutoring and their teacher is often spending less time covering the curriculum in the classroom (UNESCO, 2014: 303).

    UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.

  • DEFINITION

    Calculated by dividing the number of students enrolled by the number of classes. It should be noted that class size is difficult to define when instruction time is organised in small groups that may change in size according to the subjects studied. At the upper secondary level, where students may attend several classes depending on the subject area, measurement and comparison of class sizes should be carried out with caution.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Small schools from different villages were encouraged to come together voluntarily in order to adhere to minimum pupil/class ratios and provide the entire primary cycle (Giordano, 2008: 82).

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of pupils per teacher at a specific level of education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Between 1999 and 2011, the pupil/teacher ratio in primary education increased by at least 20% in nine countries. By contrast, it fell by at least 20% in 60 countries. Congo, Ethiopia and Mali more than doubled primary school enrolment and yet decreased their pupil/teacher ratios by more than 10 pupils per teacher (UNESCO, 2014: 5).