Universal Primary Education (UPE): refers to the enrolment of all school-age children in primary school, i.e. 100% net enrolment.
UNESCO. 1993. Education for all: status and trends. Paris: UNESCO.
EXAMPLE OF USE
The indicator selected to measure UPE achievement is the net enrolment ratio (NER), which reflects the percentage of school-age children who are enrolled in school. Its value varies from 0% to 100%. A NER of 100% means that all eligible children are enrolled in school. If a country maintains that level over time, it implies as well that all the children enrolled are completing their studies (UNESCO, 2004: 236).
UNESCO. 2004. EFA global monitoring report, 2005. Education for all: the quality imperative. Paris: UNESCO.
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Programmes at ISCED level 3, or upper secondary education, are typically designed to complete secondary education in preparation for tertiary education or provide skills relevant to employment, or both. Programmes at this level offer students more varied, specialised and in-depth instruction than programmes at lower secondary education (ISCED level 2). They are more differentiated, with an increased range of options and streams available.
UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.
EXAMPLE OF USE
The process of bumping-down then occurs, all the way down to the low-qualifi ed. For example, suppose that following an expansion of higher education there are too many tertiary-educated individuals in the economy for the number of graduate jobs available; in some instances graduates accept jobs for which only an upper secondary level of education is required. Individuals with an upper secondary education then fi nd there are fewer employment opportunities for them at their own level, and so accept jobs for which a lower secondary education is required (McIntosh, 2008: 46).
McIntosh, Steven. Education and employment in OECD countries. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 88. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.