Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The effort to influence a language, including its prestige, function, structure, and/or acquisition.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This is well recognized in the area of language planning, which emphasizes the need to understand the patterns of language use and attitudes of the speech community, and, it should be added, also of other speech groups (Inglis, 2008: 148).

  • DEFINITION

    Official government decisions regarding use of language in the pulic domain, including cours, schools, government offices and health services.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Among the great variety of language policies adopted in post-colonial Africa, three main trends stand out. First, there are those countries which opted for the status quo, avoiding any initiative that questioned the existing order. The Western language remains the language of instruction and the only official language used in government institutions and the public sector. This policy amounts to a confirmation of the colonial order. Then there are those countries which underwent slow, step-by-step change: using African languages in non-formal education and adult literacy programmes and experimenting with them in the formal education system, taking policy measures to promote African languages, opening up new, broader contexts for the use of so-called national languages – without challenging the official status of the Western language. A third category of countries have embarked ona policy of in-depth change: curtailing the official use of the Western language to the benefit of African languages, using the latter as the medium for learning in both formal and non-formal education,promoting bilingualism and multilingualism (Ndoye, 2003:4). 

    Ndoye, Mamadou. « Bilingualism, language policies and educational strategies in Africa ». IIEP newsletter 21, no 3 (2003): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    The individual acquisition or modification of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies or behaviours through experience, practice, study or instruction.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    SACMEQ’s research and training activities have been delivered through a collaborative ‘learning-by-doing’ mode, where educational planners are involved in all stages of its policy research cycle – systematically proceeding from general policy concerns to specific research questions, data collection and analysis, reporting and policy suggestions, policy debates and agenda for action, and programme implementation aimed at improvements in the equity and quality of education.

    Makuwa, Demus K. « In search of quality: what the data tell us ». IIEP newsletter 28, no 3 (2010): 2.

  • DEFINITION

    Learning assessment is part of evaluating and monitoring education more broadly. It refers to a wide range of methods and tools used to evaluate, measure and document learning outcomes and learning progress. It is about gathering information from multiple sources on what learners know and what they can do with what they have learnt. It also provides information on the process and context that enable learning, as well as those that may be hindering the learning process.

    UNESCO. 2017. Learning assessment at UNESCO: ensuring effective and relevant learning for all.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the last decade, the number of countries conducting large-scale learning assessments has doubled. Yet despite the importance – and controversy – attached to these tests, there is little information to help policymakers and practitioners make informed decisions about how to implement different types of assessments and use the results (UIS, 2015).

    UIS. 2015. Catalogue of learning assessments: a public resource to learning assessments around the world. Montreal: UIS.

  • DEFINITION

    Difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to the normal level expected of those of the same age, especially because of mental disability or cognitive disorder.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some children are more likely to learn properly than others. There are plenty of causes which can explain why certain pupils face learning difficulties: They may be in poor health, they may be less able to learn (innate ability), they may have a mother language different from the working language of the school, they may belong to a family which has less motivation for supporting school values than others, or they may be exposed to a shorter study time, both inside and outside the school (Postlethwaite, 2004: 12).

  • DEFINITION

    Conditions, forces, or factors within or exogenous to an educational setting capable of influencing the setting or those within it.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The quality of financial management at the school level determines the effectiveness of many aspects of the learning environment including knowledge (the curriculum), materials, technology, people and time (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 111).

  • DEFINITION

    Materials designed so that learners can learn from them without much help from a teacher: they are pre-recorded, stored teaching.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Despite this potential, the teaching-presence role is confused in that the learning package that instantiates CB pedagogical models is supposed to be self-contained and complete, requiring only teacher–learner interaction for marking and evaluation (Anderson and Dron, 2010: 84).

  • DEFINITION

    A community that promotes a culture of learning by developing effective local partnerships between all sectors of the community, and supports and motivates individuals and organisations to learn.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Lifelong learning is about more than diversifying the loci and modi of learning, more than expanding access and opportunity, more indeed than transferring primary agency from the educator to the learner. Its value is nothing less than the inspiration for a new idea of human society. Lifelong learning, like sustainable development, is a notional germ from which a different kind of society may sprout; one that values learning both for its uses and its own sake and that likewise values people both for what they do and who they are. Such a “learning society” is not as distant or utopian a vision as it might at first seem. Its inception requires that we re-examine how and why we learn, and then harness our creativity to design systems of learning that enrich all aspects of our lives.

    UIL website

  • DEFINITION

    Rules, principles, and procedures used to facilitate learning, frequently applicable to a variety of specific learning tasks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In addition to deciding on educational goals beyond literacy and on a broad learning strategy to engage interest and maintain the will to learn, every literacy programme has had naturally to adopt, adapt or develop a method for teaching the actual skills of reading, writing and written arithmetic (Oxenham, 2010: 96).

  • DEFINITION

    A teacher's outline of what he hopes to accomplish with the students during a particular lesson. It may list aims, main teaching points, media and resources, teaching and evaluation methods, etc.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In countries where teachers do not receive formal education prior to teaching, investments in professional development may be even more important for ensuring quality. Discussion with all personnel about how to implement an age-appropriate curriculum with interesting lesson plans and well-used learning materials is also recommended (UNESCO, 2017: 95).

    UNESCO. 2017. Overview: MELQO: Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes. Paris: UNESCO.

     

  • DEFINITION

    The ability and readiness to face and solve demands and challenges of everyday life.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes is one of the six Dakar goals to achieve Education for All, as shown in Box 1. Although there is some debate on the meaning of ‘life skills’, provision of vocational skills training no doubt plays an important role in equipping young people and adults, especially those whose learning opportunities are limited, to lead more fulfilling and productive lives (Holmes and Tschanz, 2004: 19).

    Holmes, K.; Tschanz, Y. 2004. Promoting skills development. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.
  • DEFINITION

    The concept of learning as a process that continues throughout life to address an individual’s learning needs. The term is used widely in adult education to refer to learning processes in many forms and at many levels. 

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The acquired skills provided by new entrants to the labour market cannot be relied upon to fully adapt the skills of the workforce to be in line with changes in technology, since new entrants are only a small proportion of the total workforce. It is therefore important that existing workers, who may be many years out of formal education, continue to develop their skills in a process of lifelong learning. In order to participate in lifelong learning, individuals must have the necessary skills on which to build and the ‘ability to learn’ (McIntosh, 2008: 82).

    McIntosh, Steven. Education and employment in OECD countries. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 88. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    According to UNESCO’s 1958 definition, the term refers to the ability of an individual to read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life. The concept of literacy has since evolved to embrace several skill domains, each conceived on a scale of different mastery levels and serving different purposes.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Placing responsibility for literacy: There is also no empirical evidence to guide the placement of a governmental agency for promoting literacy. The logical home for such an agency would seem to be the ministry of education, and this is indeed where most agencies are located. However, in some countries, the agency is under the ministry of labour or the ministry of social development. In at least one country, the agency was established under the Prime Minister’s office. Ideally, as literacy is a set of transversal, cross-cutting or general skills, the agency should be established and fi nanced in a manner that enables it most readily to arrange for literacy work to fit in with and support the efforts of other development-oriented ministries, such as those of labour, employment, social affairs, industry, agriculture, livestock, fi sheries, forestry and similar departments (Oxenham, 2008: 59).

    Oxenham, John. Effective literacy programmes: options for policy-makers. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 91. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of literate persons in a given age group, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. The adult literacy rate measures literacy among persons aged 15 years and above, and the youth literacy rate measures literacy among persons aged 15 to 24 years.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some of the learners can be expected to have had some primary schooling. The actual proportions are likely to correlate with the literacy rate of the country: countries with high literacy rates are likely to have high proportions of primary school dropouts who wish to capitalize on opportunities for a ‘second chance education’. In multilingual countries, instruction in the dominant official language is likely to increase the participation of primary school dropouts (Oxenham, 2008: 48).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes at ISCED level 2, or lower secondary education, are typically designed to build on the learning outcomes from ISCED level 1. Usually, the educational aim is to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and human development upon which education systems may then expand further educational opportunities. Programmes at this level are usually organized around a more subject-oriented curriculum, introducing theoretical concepts across a broad range of subjects.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Completion rates are even lower than enrolment rates. For example, in low-income countries, while 62% of adolescents were enrolled in 2015, only 27% of them finished lower secondary education in the period 2008–2014 (UNESCO, 2016). Even when they complete an education cycle, children, adolescents and youth frequently do not obtain the expected skills because  the quality of education is low. (UIS, 2017: 11)

    UIS. Reducing global poverty through universal primary and secondary education, 2017.