Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Language spoken by a numerically smaller population and/or to the language spoken by a politically marginalized population whatever its size (…). In the second case, the term minoritized language is sometimes used (Bühmann and Trudell, 2008: 6).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The OECD (…) distinguishes between three main groups of ethnic minorities, namely: migrant groups in societies; minority indigenous populations; and historically disadvantaged groups (e.g. African-Americans, gypsies, etc.). Another important distinction is official minority language groups (e.g. the French-speaking region in Canada, the Swedish-speaking community in Finland, the French and Italian-speaking regions in Switzerland, etc.) (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 73).

  • DEFINITION

    Organization of the curriculum or of instructional courses in self-contained units ('modules') designed for management by the learner (UNESCO). , Packets of subject-related teaching materials containing objectives, directions for use, and test items (ERIC)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Another salient prediction is that today’s youth will likely change jobs and careers several times during their working lifetimes and may work for as many as 12 to 15 different companies. In order to become truly sustainable, TVET must meet the challenges posed by this increase in worker mobility. This can be accomplished by providing a sound basic TVET foundation that can be supplemented – either by conventional or modular instruction – when required for job upgrading or change (UNEVOC, 2006: 11).

  • DEFINITION

    A continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds (OECD, 2002: 27).

    OECD. 2002. Glossary of key terms in evaluation and results based management. Paris: OECD.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While planning presupposes the existence of a plan, implementing it and monitoring its achievements inevitably call for special monitoring mechanisms and  instruments.  The  failure  of  many  development  programmes is often due  to shortcomings  observed at  the planning level. Having a monitoring–evaluation system in place would allow both measuring achieved progress and learning from past experience (Sylla, 2013: 2).

    Sylla, Khadim. 2013. "Tools and planning support systems". IIEP newsletter 31 (1): 2.

  • DEFINITION

    Mother tongue instruction generally refers to the use of the learners’ mother tongue as the medium of instruction. Additionally, it can refer to the mother tongue as a subject of instruction. It is considered to be an important component of quality education, particularly in the early years (UNESCO, 2003: 13). 

    UNESCO. Education in a multilingual world: UNESCO education position paper, 2003. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    To ensure that children acquire strong foundation skills in literacy and numeracy, schools need to teach the curriculum in a language children understand. Mother tongue based bilingual (or multilingual) education approaches, in which a child’s mother tongue is taught alongside the introduction of a second language, can improve performance in the second language as well as in other subjects (UNESCO, 2016: 3)

    UNESCO. If you don’t understand, how can you learn? Global education monitoring report: policy paper 24, 2016.

  • DEFINITION

    Education which starts in the mother tongue and gradually introduces one or more other languages in a structured manner, linked to children’s existing understanding in their first language or mother tongue (Pinnock, 2009: 7).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Effective mother-tongue-based multilingual education teaches linguistic and communicative competencies that are relevant to African multilingual economies characterised by a small formal economic sector and a large informal sector (Ouane and Glanz, 2010: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    Several grades or divisions are taught simultaneously in the same classroom by a single teacher.

    Brunswic, Etienne, et Jean Valérien. Multigrade schools: improving access in rural Africa? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 76. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The failure of multigrade classes has important consequences: multigrade teaching being perceived as a cut-rate, unsuitable form of delivery, its failure causes families to lose interest in schooling and thus reduces social demand for education. In short, such failures contribute to under-development and poverty. It is therefore vital for planners to identify the factors that lead to failure so as to avoid recourse to the multigrade option if the minimum conditions for success are not met (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 51).

    Brunswic, Etienne, et Jean Valérien. Multigrade schools: improving access in rural Africa? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 76. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

  • DEFINITION

    A context/person using three or more languages, usually with equal fluency.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In multilingual societies, there is likely to be a strong demand to learn one or more of the official languages (Oxenham, 2008: 119).