Glossary

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  • DEFINITION

    Placing students of similar academic ability in the same class (Dupriez, 2001: 24).

    Dupriez, V. 2001. Methods of grouping learners at school. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 93. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Unification of  the  formal  arrangements  for  basic  education  has  also  tended  to  diversify  school  intake  and  to  make  the  task  of  teaching  in  most  schools more complex. In this context, ability grouping in schools may  seem  an  option  based  on  a  fairly  rational  organizational  approach (Gamoran et al., 1995) and on the educational assumption that, by grouping similar students together, it will be easier to ensure that their needs are properly met (Dupriez, 2001: 24).

    Dupriez, V. 2001. Methods of grouping learners at school. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 93. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Access to education includes: on-schedule  enrolment  and  progression  at  an  appropriate  age, regular  attendance,  learning consistent with national achievement norms, a learning environment that is safe enough to allow learning to take place, and opportunities to learn that are equitably distributed (Lewin, 2015: 29).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where the quality of learning and teaching varies widely, and where it is rationed by price or by other factors that constrain access, it is important to ensure that improvements in access to education are equitable and do not increase learning opportunity for some at the expense of others. Enhanced equity is an essential condition of an expanded vision of access (Lewin, 2015: 38).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Accountability is a process, aimed at helping actors meet responsibilities and reach goals. Individuals or institutions are obliged, on the basis of a legal, political, social or moral justification, to provide an account of how they met clearly defined responsibilities.

    UNESCO. Accountability in education: meeting our commitments; Global education monitoring report, 2017/8. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where officers feel a sense of accountability, organizations tend to function better. Efforts to strengthen accountability may be counterproductive, however, if officers feel isolated and unsupported. Unfortunately, few ministries have developed a genuine staff development programme and nor do they incite their staff members to take personal initiative in this regard. De-professionalization and demotivation of the civil service is a real risk, if the strengthening of external accountability is not accompanied by efforts towards professional development (De Grauwe, 2009: 16).

    De Grauwe, Anton. Without capacity, there is no development. Rethinking capacity development. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2009.

  • DEFINITION

    Performance on standardized tests or examinations that measure knowledge or competence in a specific subject area. The term is sometimes used as an indication of education quality within an education system or when comparing a group of schools.

    UNESCO.2008. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    "Differences in average pupil learning achievement between schools and classes are considerable, even after statistically controlling for individual characteristics. They underscore the extent to which strong learning outcomes depend on the availability, use, and management of school-based resources (UNESCO-BREDA, 2007) ", (UNESCO, 2008:68).

    UNESCO.2008. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Education specifically targeted at individuals who are regarded as adults by their society to improve their technical or professional qualifications, further develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge with the purpose to complete a level of formal education, or to acquire, refresh or update their knowledge, skills and competencies in a particular field. This also includes what may be referred to as ‘continuing education’, ‘recurrent education’ or ‘second chance education’.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Latin America and the Caribbean was one of the first regions to introduce the category of young people into the concept of adult education in the 1980s, due to their growing presence in educational programmes designed for adults. Youth and adult education continues to be the most representative conceptual classification covering what is principally second-chance or compensatory schooling, including literacy. (UIL, 2017: 27)

    UIL. CONFINTEA VI Mid-Term Review 2017: progress, challenges, and opportunities; the status of adult learning and education; summary of the regional reports. Hamburg: UIL, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an inter-governmental commitment and “a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”. It comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are “integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education is central to the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Within the comprehensive 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, education is essentially articulated as a stand-alone goal (SDG4) with its 7 outcome targets and 3 means of implementation (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of completed years of education of a country's population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A closer look at the data, however, reveals notable differences and exceptions showing that more education does not necessarily lead to increased emissions. In China in 2008, when the average level of education was seven years, the level of emissions per capita was one-third of what the level in the United States was at a similar average level of education, in 1950 (UNESCO, 2014: 178).

  • DEFINITION

    Defined in the World Declaration on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990) as essential tools for learning (e.g. literacy, oral expression, numeracy and problem-solving) as well as basic learning content (e.g. knowledge, skills, values and attitudes) that human beings require to be able to survive, develop their full capacities, live and work in dignity, participate in development, improve their quality of life, make informed decisions and continue learning. The scope of basic learning needs and how they should be met varies by country and culture, and changes over time.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    These observations and indicators suggest that four basic learning needs must be met before moving on to more comprehensive notions of quality: reading with comprehension, communicating in writing, valuing good citizenship, and leaming from context (Schiefelbein, 1992: 30).

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto. Redefining basic education for Latin America: lessons to be learned from the Colombian Escuela Nueva. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 42. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1992.

  • DEFINITION

    Usually refers to some minimum competence in reading, writing and calculating (using numbers). The term is synonymous with basic learning needs.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The IALS data show that qualifications and literacy/numeracy skills are positively related, but far from perfectly so. Thus, there are plenty of examples in IALS of highly-qualified people with poor literacy and numeracy skills, and individuals with few qualifi cations who nevertheless have very good basic skills. This has important implications for employers in terms of hiring individuals with the appropriate knowledge and skills, rather than simply individuals with certain qualifications (McIntosh, 2008: 35).

    McIntosh, Steven. Education and employment in OECD countries. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 88. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    Implies the enhancement of capabilities of people and institutions to improve their competence and problem solving capacities in a sustainable manner.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where a programme is financed by external agencies, the fifth option may also involve the issue of ownership and control: should the local agency – whether governmental or non-governmental – be responsible for the samples, or should the financier accept them? Currently, the general policy is to encourage local ownership and control in the interests of promoting capacity-building, although external specialists are often imported to help with the design and analysis (Oxenham, 2008: 112).

    Oxenham, J. 2008. Effective literacy programmes: options for policy-makers. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 91. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Major costs for periodic investments such as Expenditure for assets that yield benefits for a period of more than one year. It includes expenditure for construction, renovation and major repairs of buildings and the purchase of heavy equipment or vehicles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Governments often treat large-scale investment in physical facilities and equipment as a capital investment, i.e. a one-off cost, although institutions may need to pay annual interest payments and allow for depreciation. An institution with no, little, or very out-of-date existing technology infrastructure may indeed initially require a heavy one- time investment, but in general, technology infrastructure requires regular ongoing funding, for two reasons. First, the technology changes very rapidly due to technical advances. For instance, the average life of a desktop computer is three years or so, as the power and functionality of computers constantly develops. Secondly, the cost of human support for the infrastructure usually far exceeds the cost of equipment replacement and upgrading. Thus, investment in technological infrastructure within and between institutions should be seen as a recurrent or operational cost. When physical infrastructure is treated as a capital expenditure, it is less likely to compete for funds that impact directly on teaching. However, as an operational cost, the need to fund technology support staff directly competes with funds for teaching and research. Consequently, the human technology support side is often underfunded in many educational institutions (Bates, 2001: 38).

  • DEFINITION

    The catchment area is the geographical area served by  a school. (In order to delineate it, pinpoint pupils' homes and outline the smallest area covering all of them).

    Hallak, J. 1977. Planning the location of schools: an instrument of educational policy. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There  is very  little difficulty in interpreting  the objective of opening schools in such a way that all children enjoy equal opportunity of access to them.  Indeed it seems to be a basic element of all policies to reduce disparities.  Generally, though, accessibility is defined  solely in terms of  physical  accessibility.  To measure  this we would have to take into account distance, relief, communications, and  the time taken to travel between school and home, bearing  in mind available means of transport.  The problem therefore consists  in determining  the catchment areas of existing schools  in order to identify, on the one hand, the population that lies outside  these catchment areas and is therefore deprived of any education service  for reasons of physical accessibility, and, on the other hand, to estimate, inside the catchment areas  (i.e. in the areas reached by the school system) the proportion of school-age  children  actually managing to find places in the schools (Caillods, et al: 118).

    Caillods, F.; Casselli, J. Ta Ngoc Châu; Porte, G. 1983. School mapping and micro-planning in education. Training materials in educational planning, administration and facilities. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    The child-friendly school model is based on the simple premise that schools can and should operate in the best interests of the child. Educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective, staffed with trained teachers, equipped with adequate resources and offering conditions appropriate for learning.

    UNICEF. « Quality education and child-friendly schools ». Actions for children Issue 5 (2009).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If education systems are fully inclusive, quality education can be extended to all groups as a matter of routine. Bringing this about requires systems-level interventions. Instead of just ‘doing’ child-friendly schools in local communities, CFS models are ‘sold’ as good practice for the entire education system (UNICEF, 2009: 6).

    UNICEF. Child-friendly schools manual. New York: UNICEF, 2009.