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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Selection or classification of students for schools, classes, or other educational programs based on differences in ability or achievement.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The field of education is confronted with widely varying forms of demand and target groups. The massive spread of education is a reality, no less in the North than in the South, even though school enrolment rates sometimes still differ very markedly. Unification of the formal arrangements for basic education has also tended to diversify school intake and to make the task of teaching in most schools more complex. In this context, ability grouping in schools may seem an option based on a fairly rational organizational approach (Gamoran et al., 1995) and on the educational assumption that, by grouping similar students together, it will be easier to ensure that their needs are properly met (Dupriez, 2010: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    Performance on standardized tests or examinations that measure knowledge or competence in a specific subject area. The term is sometimes used as an indication of education quality within an education system or when comparing a group of schools.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Because reading is so fundamental to overall literacy and the learning of the other subjects, poor reading performance is an obstacle, in itself, to secondary school academic achievement and further education (OECD, 2009: 116).

  • DEFINITION

    Academic failure depends on the evaluation system applied by an educator, and the criteria are thus subjective. The level of a failing student is however generally characterized by a difficulty to follow lessons at the same pace as others and by low marks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Academic failure, which primarily affects pupils from vulnerable groups, takes a variety of forms but stem mainly, according to the pupils themselves, from disaffection with what they consider to be pointless and unnecessary knowledge and culture transmitted by schools. Conversely, their vision of the world as “poor” people or minorities, their language, their migrant culture and their artistic practices are all ignored or regarded as matters to be kept apart from the “real” content of secondary education. Moreover, secondary education does not readily hand over its keys, leaves many of the skills needed for success unmentioned, inexplicit, since they are assumed to have been acquired elsewhere (UNESCO, 2006: 29).

  • DEFINITION

    Liberty of educational institutions to decide courses and research, and of teachers to teach subjects, without outside coercion.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    However, the notion of transformation as a more complex metaphor for social and educational change is invoked in order to ensure that the equity challenges are addressed within a framework that values, for example, curriculum reform, changes in institutional culture, innovative scholarship, academic freedom, and public good engagement as much as it does diversity in all its forms (Lange and Singh, 2010: 57).

  • DEFINITION

    Criteria established by an educational institution to determine levels of student achievement.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Even in such a situation, however, students’ self-perceptions about their academic standards may be at variance with objective reality (Bray, 1999: 42).

  • DEFINITION

    The annual teaching or examination period during which students attend courses or take final examinations, not taking minor breaks into account. It may be shorter than 12 months but would typically not be shorter than 9 months. It may vary for different levels of education or types of educational institutions within a country. This is also referred to as the ‘school year’, mainly for the pretertiary level.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Flexible schooling and curriculum programmes can balance the time for schooling with children’s work schedules, allow the academic year to vary according to the work season and compensate for class time lost with independent modules or with ‘summer’ school, while adopting a curriculum that reflects children’s interests, needs and sociocultural realities (UNESCO, 2008 : 119)

  • DEFINITION

    Accelerated learning courses focus on completing learning in a shorter period of time (Longden, 2013: 3).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Whilst increasing numbers of colleges and universities are offering such accelerated courses [...], there has been little systematic research on the impact on students’ learning in accelerated formats (MacKenzie and Pritchard, 2013: 3).

  • DEFINITION

    An education or training programme that progresses the learning of trainees/students at a faster rate than usual.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Most accelerated learning programmes (ALP) are 'catch up' initiatives to assist older children/ youth, who have missed years of schooling, to complete their basic education and to obtain educational qualifications in a relatively short period of time. For example, an ALP can be a three-year programme that condenses six years of primary schooling (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 215)., Accelerated learning programmes can help provide a second chance to children and adolescents, provided government and employers recognize such programmes as legitimate for school and work. The Jóvenes programmes in Latin America are one example (UNESCO, 2010: 12).

  • DEFINITION

    Access to education refers to whether or not a child can physically attend school. Access indicators measure the amount of children of a given school age who have access to a given educational level or cycle

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As a consequence, some countries, including Finland, Ireland, and Sweden, have focused on diversifying the entry routes to higher education. Policy measures in this area include easing access for mature students and people with vocational and other non-traditional educational qualifications, as well as developing part-time and flexible learning options (Crosier and Parveva, 2013: 56).

  • DEFINITION

    Being held responsible and answerable for specific results or outcomes of an activity (over which one has responsibility). , Obligation to demonstrate that work has been conducted in compliance with agreed rules and standards or to report fairly and accurately on performance results vis a vis mandated roles and/or plans. This may require a careful, even legally defensible, demonstration that the work is consistent with the contract terms.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the public administration level, the main issue concerned decentralization. Several respondents felt that the entire planning process should have been initiated at state level instead of in Juba due to the inter-state disparities and low awareness of these in Juba. Further, some respondents felt that there was more responsiveness and drive for results as well as accountability at state level – although the process of developing working relations took time and effort (Sigsgaard, 2013: 6). , Where officers feel a sense of accountability, organizations tend to function better. Efforts to strengthen accountability may be counterproductive, however, if officers feel isolated and unsupported. Unfortunately, few ministries have developed a genuine staff development programme and nor do they incite their staff members to take personal initiative in this regard. De-professionalization and demotivation of the civil service is a real risk, if the strengthening of external accountability is not accompanied by efforts towards professional development (De Grauwe, 2009: 16).

  • DEFINITION

    Recognition and approval of the academic standards of an educational institution by some external, impartial body of high public esteem.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In general, states are more likely to attach high stakes to performance for teachers, schools, and districts than for students. However, in 22 states, the consequences for both students and teachers/ institutions are significant. For students, they can involve nonpromotion from grade to grade, or failure to obtain a high-school diploma. For teachers they can mean salary supplements or a decision to terminate an appointment as principal. For schools, they can mean loss of accreditation (Kellaghan, 2001: 39).

  • DEFINITION

    Academic performance disparity (as measured by educational indicators such as grades, graduation rates, standardized test scores, college admission, course selection) between or among student groups. The groups may be defined by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, English language proficiency, gender, geographic location, etc.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Radio and television programming can improve learning and narrow achievement gaps for disadvantaged children, particularly those in isolated or underserved settings (UNESCO, 2014: 291).

  • DEFINITION

    Achievement tests are designed to measure the knowledge and skills students learned in school or to determine the academic progress they have made over a period of time. The tests may also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a schools and teachers, or identify the appropriate academic placement for a student—i.e., what courses or programs may be deemed most suitable, or what forms of academic support they may need. Achievement tests are “backward-looking” in that they measure how well students have learned what they were expected to learn.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    However, the school feeding programme in Bangladesh, which has operated since 2002 in chronically food-insecure areas, has been evaluated and shown to be effective. In addition to increased enrolment and completion rates, improvements in achievement tests were recorded by children receiving fortified biscuits, after controlling for other factors. Participating children in grade 5 scored 15.7 percentage points overall above non-participating children (UNESCO, 2008: 124).

  • DEFINITION

    Research with two objectives: to change a given situation and produce knowledge about this change [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In some sub-regions, teams of researchers have been formed involving university researchers, staff of other centres of expertise and of ministerial policy and planning units working on common agendas under the specific instruction of senior management in ministries of education. Comparative situational review and analysis can feed into selected in-depth assessment of specific experiences, which itself leads to action research related to programme development or policy analysis work (Hoppers, 2006: 124). , These standards are not part of the performance managemen arrangements, or teacher registration. Performance management is a site based responsibility. Additional applications of the standards are currently being explored. For example, an action research pilot embedding the Professional Standards as the proposed criteria for suitability of assessment for employment as a teacher with Education Queensland has just concluded (December, 2004) and will inform further decisions around revised processes for selection (Van Nuland and Khandelwal, 2006: 227).

  • DEFINITION

    Enrolment of the official age group for a given level of education either at that level or the levels above, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The inclusion of the ECCE in an extended EDI tends to pull down its value in many countries. For example, Tajikistan has a high EDI score (0.977), but falls to the middle category with an extended EDI score of 0.908 because it has a high stunting rate (30%) and a very low pre-primary education adjusted net enrolment ratio (26%) (UNESCO. 2014: 309).

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of pupils of official primary school entrance age who are enrolled in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age. It is the equivalent of the Age-specific enrolment rate of official primary entrance age. It measures the actual level of access to primary education of the population of the official primary school entrance age.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Children are more likely to complete primary schooling if they enter at the right age. The global adjusted net intake rate for the first year of primary school increased between 1999 and 2011, but only slightly, from 81% to 86% – and rose by less than one percentage point over the last four years of the period (UNESCO, 2014: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    [The] age at which children are supposed to start school […]. However, not only does the age requirement vary from one country to another, but so does the way in which the authorities respond to the requirements.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A necessary pre-condition for reaching UPE is to have all children of school admission age entering school. While policies adopted since Dakar have brought about major progress in access to schooling, school systems have not always been able to retain the large flow of new entrants, making achievement of universal primary enrolment and completion difficult (UNESCO, 2008: 53). , If, for example, primary education comprises five years of schooling and the official age of admission is six years, the gross enrolment rate in primary education is equal to the total number of pupils in primary education divided by the total 6 to 10-year-old population (Châu, 2003: 33).

  • DEFINITION

    To calculate the cohort admission rate you can choose a given cohort - e.g. that born 10 years ago - follow it for several consecutive years and account for the members of this cohort who successively sooner or later enter school. It is (also) possible, if one has for several years the age-specific admission rates, to reconstruct a cohort admission rate.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A more appropriate means of measuring admissions is the cohort admission rate. This is obtained by monitoring a cohort of children born in the same year and counting how many are admitted to school successively at 5 years of age, then 6 years, then 7 years, etc. By following such a cohort, we obtain a more accurate view of real admissions and can ensure that we have arrived at a figure for total admissions. Chau, T. 2003. Fundamenals of Educational Planning - 72: Demographic aspects of educational planning. Paris: IIEP.