Glossary

glossary

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  • DEFINITION

    Placing students of similar academic ability in the same class (Dupriez, 2001: 24).

    Dupriez, V. 2001. Methods of grouping learners at school. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 93. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Unification of  the  formal  arrangements  for  basic  education  has  also  tended  to  diversify  school  intake  and  to  make  the  task  of  teaching  in  most  schools more complex. In this context, ability grouping in schools may  seem  an  option  based  on  a  fairly  rational  organizational  approach (Gamoran et al., 1995) and on the educational assumption that, by grouping similar students together, it will be easier to ensure that their needs are properly met (Dupriez, 2001: 24).

    Dupriez, V. 2001. Methods of grouping learners at school. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 93. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.

  • DEFINITION

    Access to education includes: on-schedule  enrolment  and  progression  at  an  appropriate  age, regular  attendance,  learning consistent with national achievement norms, a learning environment that is safe enough to allow learning to take place, and opportunities to learn that are equitably distributed (Lewin, 2015: 29).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where the quality of learning and teaching varies widely, and where it is rationed by price or by other factors that constrain access, it is important to ensure that improvements in access to education are equitable and do not increase learning opportunity for some at the expense of others. Enhanced equity is an essential condition of an expanded vision of access (Lewin, 2015: 38).

    Lewin, Keith M. Educational access, equity, and development: planning to make rights realities. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 98. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2015.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Accountability is a process, aimed at helping actors meet responsibilities and reach goals. Individuals or institutions are obliged, on the basis of a legal, political, social or moral justification, to provide an account of how they met clearly defined responsibilities.

    UNESCO. Accountability in education: meeting our commitments; Global education monitoring report, 2017/8. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where officers feel a sense of accountability, organizations tend to function better. Efforts to strengthen accountability may be counterproductive, however, if officers feel isolated and unsupported. Unfortunately, few ministries have developed a genuine staff development programme and nor do they incite their staff members to take personal initiative in this regard. De-professionalization and demotivation of the civil service is a real risk, if the strengthening of external accountability is not accompanied by efforts towards professional development (De Grauwe, 2009: 16).

    De Grauwe, Anton. Without capacity, there is no development. Rethinking capacity development. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2009.

  • DEFINITION

    Performance on standardized tests or examinations that measure knowledge or competence in a specific subject area. The term is sometimes used as an indication of education quality within an education system or when comparing a group of schools.

    UNESCO.2008. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    "Differences in average pupil learning achievement between schools and classes are considerable, even after statistically controlling for individual characteristics. They underscore the extent to which strong learning outcomes depend on the availability, use, and management of school-based resources (UNESCO-BREDA, 2007) ", (UNESCO, 2008:68).

    UNESCO.2008. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.

     

  • DEFINITION

    Education specifically targeted at individuals who are regarded as adults by their society to improve their technical or professional qualifications, further develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge with the purpose to complete a level of formal education, or to acquire, refresh or update their knowledge, skills and competencies in a particular field. This also includes what may be referred to as ‘continuing education’, ‘recurrent education’ or ‘second chance education’.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Latin America and the Caribbean was one of the first regions to introduce the category of young people into the concept of adult education in the 1980s, due to their growing presence in educational programmes designed for adults. Youth and adult education continues to be the most representative conceptual classification covering what is principally second-chance or compensatory schooling, including literacy. (UIL, 2017: 27)

    UIL. CONFINTEA VI Mid-Term Review 2017: progress, challenges, and opportunities; the status of adult learning and education; summary of the regional reports. Hamburg: UIL, 2017.

  • DEFINITION

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an inter-governmental commitment and “a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”. It comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are “integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education is central to the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Within the comprehensive 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, education is essentially articulated as a stand-alone goal (SDG4) with its 7 outcome targets and 3 means of implementation (UNESCO, 2016: 4).

    UNESCO. Unpacking Sustainable Development Goal 4: Education 2030; guide. 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO, 2016.

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of completed years of education of a country's population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A closer look at the data, however, reveals notable differences and exceptions showing that more education does not necessarily lead to increased emissions. In China in 2008, when the average level of education was seven years, the level of emissions per capita was one-third of what the level in the United States was at a similar average level of education, in 1950 (UNESCO, 2014: 178).