Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The understanding that women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development.

    UNESCO. A Guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Policies that address gender equality and equity in teacher education and training, support and retention should be at the heart of national education reforms, policies and planning. Since the 1960s a number of initiatives have been taken up to address issues of gender equality so as to ensure that women are both contributors to and beneficiaries of the development process. These include undertaking assessments, formulating various international and regional policy instruments signed and ratified by States, and developing action plans and strategies, particularly at country levels (UNESCO, 2015: 28).

    UNESCO. A Guide for gender equality in teacher education policy and practices. Paris: UNESCO, 2015.

  • DEFINITION

    A simple measurement of the existing disparities between girls and boys in education in a given country can be obtained by calculating the ‘gap’ regarding certain indicators (such as primary intake, drop out or completion rates e.g.) and national average values for selected indicators.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Except for the Nordic countries, unadjusted odds results show that participation tends to be slightly higher among men. This result is probably due to the interaction between gender, age and educational attainment. For example, there is a strong gender gap in educational attainment among older generations. In the countries considered, however, the educational attainment levels of women are catching up with those of men (and in some countries are overtaking them), especially among younger generations (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Purely a numerical concept. Reaching gender parity in education implies that the same proportion of boys and girls - relative to their respective age groups - would enter the education system and participate in its different cycles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Women make up almost two-thirds of the total [of illiterate adults], and there has been no progress in reducing this share since 1990. Of the 61 countries with data, around half are expected to achieve gender parity in adult literacy by 2015, and 10 will be very close (UNESCO, 2014: 4).

  • DEFINITION

    Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator. A GPI between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates parity between the genders. A GPI below 0.97 indicates a disparity in favour of males. A GPI above 1.03 indicates a disparity in favour of females.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Worldwide, the Gender Parity Index (GPI) for adult literacy improved significantly between 1970 and 2000-2004, especially in the Arab states (from 0.34 to 0.69), East Asia and the Pacific (from 0.62 to 0.92), sub-Saharan Africa (from 0.49 to 0.76) and South and West Asia (from 0.40 to 0.66). In Latin America and the Caribbean, gender parity in adult literacy rates has almost been achieved, standing at 0.98 (Lind, 2008: 27).

  • DEFINITION

    A Geographical Information System is a computer program which combines two databases. The first one holds numerical data and is as such very similar to the information base you will find in a programme such as Dbase or Access. In the case of an education system, these would be the ‘traditional’ education management data on schools, teachers and students. The second database files geographic data, such as the location of schools, the boundaries of districts, the location of villages and cities, of roads, rivers and mountains, and other relevant geographical characteristics. The GIS links these two sets so that statistical data can be presented not only as tables and graphs but also as maps, which helps the reader to look for spatial patterns (Attfield, Tamiru, Parolin and De Grauwe, 2001: 9)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Information collection has become needs-driven, and the capacity to process, analyse, share, and disseminate information has been improved, reducing overlap in activities. New data visualization techniques, including mapping and geographic information systems (GIS), have improved decision-making processes. Lastly, it has enabled managers to use information at the policy and implementation levels, and has led to better coordination and resource allocation (Arefee, 2011: 92).

  • DEFINITION

    Global Citizenship Education (GCED) aims to empower learners of all ages to assume active roles, both locally and globally, in building more peaceful, tolerant, inclusive and secure societies. GCED is based on the three domains of learning - cognitive, socio-emotional and behavioural: Cognitive: knowledge and thinking skills necessary to better understand the world and its complexities; Socio-emotional: values, attitudes and social skills that enable learners to develop affectively, psychosocially, and physically and to enable them to live together with others respectfully and peacefully; Behavioural: conduct, performance, practical application and engagement. The key learning outcomes, key learner attributes, topics and learning objectives suggested in GCED are based on the three domains of learning mentioned above. They are interlinked and integrated into the learning process.

    UNESCO website

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While civic education can be seen as education about citizenship, citizenship education is far more concerned with education through citizenship and for citizenship (Kerr, 2002: 216). In contrast to civic education, which focuses very much on education that reinforces the existing structures of government and political culture, citizenship education, as described by Kerr, has the potential to address issues of diversity through the ideal values of citizenship education outlined above. Whether this is achieved depends very much on its implementation (Inglis, 2008: 106).

  • DEFINITION

    Calculates the utilisation rate of premises in an attempt to maximise use. G.U.R. = G.U.R. X S.U.R. = [(number of instructional periods taught/theoretical number of periods) x (average number of pupils per class/classroom capacity)] x 100. The overall utilisation rate (OUR) combines both the time utilisation rate and the space utilisation rate The higher the rate, the greater the utilisation of the premises.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If the school-age population moves closer to the city center and to employment centers (reverse sprawl movement), due to increasing gas price, centrally located schools will experience rapid enrollment growth and a pressing need for capacity expansion, while schools located in the periphery will tend to have a lower-than-one utilization rate (Delmelle, Thill, Peeters and Thomas, 2014: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    Total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the official age group corresponding to this level of education. The GER can exceed 100% because of early or late entry and/or grade repetition.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the Republic of Moldova, where there has been a concerted effort to expand pre-primary education, the gross enrolment ratio of children aged 3 to 6 increased from 43% in 2000 to 77% in 2011 (UNESCO, 2014: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of new entrants to a given grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official school entrance age for that grade.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Gross intake to the last grade in Senegal was higher, at 63% in 2011, showing that it can overestimate progress towards completion. An indicator in the spirit of the expected cohort completion rate provides a more accurate picture of completion, and so is more appropriate for measuring progress towards post-2015 goals (UNESCO, 2014: 58).