Private supplementary tutoring in pre-university education is defined as tutoring in academic subjects (such as language and mathematics) provided by tutors for financial gain and additional to the provision of mainstream schooling (Bray, 1999). It usually takes place outside school hours, often in separate premises. It excludes tutoring in extracurricular subjects and voluntary help. It is proposed by the mainstream teacher of the pupils or by another teacher and is variable in intensity (often according to family income). A distinction should be made between ‘one-on-one private tutoring’offered by individuals; and ‘preparatory courses’ offered by institutions (Hallak and Poisson, 2007: 257).
Hallak, Jacques, and Muriel Poisson. Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: what can be done? Ethics and corruption in education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2007.
When teachers engage in private tutoring of their own students, the poorest students suffer most because their families cannot afford tutoring and their teacher is often spending less time covering the curriculum in the classroom (UNESCO, 2014: 303).
UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.