Being held responsible and answerable for specific results or outcomes of an activity (over which one has responsibility). , Obligation to demonstrate that work has been conducted in compliance with agreed rules and standards or to report fairly and accurately on performance results vis a vis mandated roles and/or plans. This may require a careful, even legally defensible, demonstration that the work is consistent with the contract terms.

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At the public administration level, the main issue concerned decentralization. Several respondents felt that the entire planning process should have been initiated at state level instead of in Juba due to the inter-state disparities and low awareness of these in Juba. Further, some respondents felt that there was more responsiveness and drive for results as well as accountability at state level – although the process of developing working relations took time and effort (Sigsgaard, 2013: 6). , Where officers feel a sense of accountability, organizations tend to function better. Efforts to strengthen accountability may be counterproductive, however, if officers feel isolated and unsupported. Unfortunately, few ministries have developed a genuine staff development programme and nor do they incite their staff members to take personal initiative in this regard. De-professionalization and demotivation of the civil service is a real risk, if the strengthening of external accountability is not accompanied by efforts towards professional development (De Grauwe, 2009: 16).