Other title(s): The Effects of private tutoring and parenting behaviors on children's academic achievement in Korea: are there differences between low- and high-income groups?
Author(s): Se Hee Lim; Hyun Suk Jwa; Bong Joo Lee
Organisation(s): Korean Educational Development Institute (Korea R)
Pages: p. 163-178
This study examines the differences in effects of private tutoring and parenting behaviors on children's academic achievement between low- and high-income groups in Korea, using data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The results show that parenting behaviors have a significant positive effect on academic achievement for both income groups. However, we find different patterns of private tutoring across income groups. Private tutoring expenditures have a significant positive effect on academic achievement for the low-income group, but only a marginal effect for the high-income group. The findings imply that the value of financial investment in private tutoring is somewhat doubtful, especially for high-income groups. However, the results indicate that parenting behaviors are more important for children's academic achievement. Our results show that the effect of parenting behaviors on children's academic achievement is greater than that of private tutoring expenditures.