The elaboration of the indicators framework to track progress towards the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development marks a critical moment for global development. But what indicators will be used to track progress and how were they chosen? What are the implications for national education data and information systems – are they ready to monitor an ambitious agenda which prioritises education quality and equity? What are the barriers that countries face in producing and using good-quality data? And what initiatives at the national and international levels could help build greater technical capacity and mobilise attention and resources for measurement, ensuring a strong link between the data gathered and national plans and policy objectives they are meant to inform? This report aims to answer these questions and serve as a roadmap to measure SDG 4 and Education 2030 by examining the key issues and challenges in implementing the new indicator frameworks. It is the first report in a new series that will report annually on advances towards better measurement and use of data, focusing on difficult-to-measure areas and sharing good practices, especially in relation to the key SDG themes of education quality, learning, equity and inclusion. This is essential to produce the robust data and evidence needed by a wide range of national and international stakeholders to design, target and evaluate policy interventions while charting progress towards the development goals. Can the SDGs succeed in changing the world in 15 years? We will not know without the data to tell us. The data needed to drive change starts within the system – by responding to national policies and priorities. To achieve the ambitious goals, it is critical to anchor and support measurement efforts within national systems.