Réussite scolaire et réforme éducative selon l’approche par compétences (APC) en Afrique subsaharienne: résultats d’une étude comparative

Author(s): Tagne, Gustave; Asoh, Derek; Gauthier, Clermont

Date: 2016

Pages: p. 76-97

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This paper presents a critical analysis of the implementation of new school curricula designed according to the Competency-Based Approach (CPA) in Africa, and proposes an alternative teaching-learning process to facilitate the development of competences. With regard to the poor results of the educational system, African Authorities, supported through international aid, have mobilized in several countries to improve this system. In this context, the Competency-Based Approach (CPA) which constitutes one of the major topics of debate in educational research these last three decades has been retained as the method for designing school curricula. We shall present its origin, characteristics as well as its funding. From the results of a comparative study conducted by the French Agency for Development (FAD) in nine countries having tested the Competence-Based Approach in primary schools confirming its failure, we postulate that these poor results come from the pedagogic approach (discovery approach of socio-constructivists) chosen as teaching-learning process. After presenting a summary of elements which seem to guarantee the success of an educational reform which targets the progress of pupils, we propose explicit teaching or direct instruction as another teaching-learning process, most suitable for establishing new programs.

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