Language issues in educational policies and practices in Nepal: a critical review

This report makes a critical analysis of language-in-education plans of Nepal with special focus on the MOE’s recent mother-tongue-based multilingual education. To be specific it includes following key points; a. Best practices of the MTB-MLE in India, Ethiopia and Burkina Faso and what lesson Nepal can learn from those practices. b. Review and critical analysis of the existing MTB-MLE policies and practices in Nepal. c. Experience of success and challenges from two MTB-MLE implemented schools in Nepal. d.Assessment of the extent to which present MTB-MLE activities/processes are geared towards improving student learning outcomes. e. Policy options for the medium of instruction in Nepalese school education. The review of the MTB-MLE practices in three countries (mentioned above) suggests following points for the effective implementation of MTB-MLE in Nepal - Enough materials in local languages should be prepared before the implementation of the programme. - Community participation and involvement of other stakeholders should be ensured in all stages of the programme. -Eight-year long MTB-MLE provides a strong foundation for children’s learning and help them achieve better in all subjects including second and foreign language. - Decentralized decision-making process, with effective inspection and mentoring, helps for the effective implementation of the MTB-MLE. As Ethiopian case suggests there is no single uniform model of the programme in different states. It depends upon the need of the different regions. - Teachers’ capacity in mother tongue teaching is one of the most important factors for making teaching and learning of MT effective.

Phyak, Prem
Asian Development Bank
46 p.
Asia and the Pacific
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Language and education
Language policy
Mother tongue instruction
Burkina Faso

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