In this TERCE report, there is information on the relationship between academic performance and factors associated with learning that are linked to the students and their families, to teachers and classrooms, and to schools and their management, both before and after considering the socioeconomic level of the students.
The measurement of these associated factors was conducted through questionnaires for students, families, teachers, and principals.
The analysis shows that the following variables are related to students’ achievement: positive support from the parents at home to monitor learning and encourage reading, as well as attending preschool. Absence from school and belonging to an indigenous group are factors associated with lower academic performance.
In some countries gender differences were recorded, where girls tend to demonstrate higher results on reading tests and boys in natural science and mathematics. At classroom level, teacher attendance and punctuality, the availability of notebooks and books, classroom environment and teaching practices that meet the needs of students are positively associated with learning achievements.
The analysis of schools shows that the education systems in the region are not very socioeconomically inclusive, and it is unlikely that students from different social backgrounds are found in the same school. Violence in the school environment also has a negative relationship with learning, whereas school resources and infrastructure maintain a positive association with learning.