Inequalities in learning in Vietnam: teachers’ beliefs about and classroom practices for ethnic minorities

Author(s): DeJaeghere, Joan; Dao, Vu; Duong, Bich-Hang; Luong, Phuong

Date: 2021

Pages: 34 p.

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Global and national education agendas are concerned with improving quality and equality of learning outcomes. This paper provides an analysis of the case of Vietnam, which is regarded as having high learning outcomes and less inequality in learning. But national data and international test outcomes may mask the hidden inequalities that exist between minoritized groups and majority (Kinh) students. Drawing on data from qualitative videos and interviews of secondary teachers across 10 provinces, we examine the role of teachers’ beliefs, curricular design and actions in the classroom. We show that teachers hold different beliefs and engage in curricular design – or the use of hegemonic curriculum and instructional practices that produce different learning outcomes for minoritized students compared to Kinh students. It suggests that policies need to focus on the social-cultural aspects of teaching in addition to the material and technical aspects.

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