This paper investigates the correlates of student performance in mathematics and dictation tests among schoolchildren in Indonesia. This is the first such study to use a new nationally representative sample of Indonesian primary-school students. Our dataset includes unique data on teacher absenteeism collected through direct observation, the first ever in Indonesia. We find that teacher absenteeism is indeed a significantly negative correlate of student performance, while quality of school facilities predicts better performance. We also find a significant non-monotonic concave relationship between the pupil-teacher ratio and student's mathematics performance. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of the results.
Asia and the Pacific
Studies of achievement