The Innovative Teaching for Effective Learning (ITEL) Teacher Knowledge Survey is the first international study to explore the nature, function and development of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge, i.e. what teachers know about teaching and learning. In-service and pre-service teachers exhibited higher knowledge on the classroom management portion of the assessment than in other areas related to instructional process, such as teaching methods and lesson planning. Results suggest that the more teachers learn about classroom management, the more confident they feel about mastering the teaching and learning process in general. Classroom management also seems to have a larger impact on self-efficacy than does learning about lesson planning. In-service teachers who report feeling confident about managing classrooms also report higher quality instructional practices in this domain. Knowledge related to learning and development; incorporating aspects of cognitive learning strategies, memory and information processes, is the area with most room for improvement in the pedagogical knowledge base.