Based on an extensive review of scholarly literature, this paper seeks to overview curriculum reforms aimed at improving learning outcomes and reduce disparities in school achievement in low and middle income countries in the past 15 years. The paper focuses on four major curriculum areas, including curriculum content, pedagogical approach, student assessment and language-in-education policies. Curriculum reforms in four countries, namely China, Turkey, Uganda and Bolivia, are analysed in order to illustrate the global reform talk, implementation in local contexts, challenges encountered, and the outcomes of these major reform efforts on learning outcomes and addressing discrepancies in school achievement. The paper concludes with specific policy recommendations for the post-2015 education agenda.
Background paper prepared for the Education for all global monitoring report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges
Americas and the Caribbean
Asia and the Pacific
Studies of achievement