The authors aim to summarise the current evidence on the effects of physical activity (PA) interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children, and formulate research priorities and recommendations. The authors draw the conclusion that there is currently inconclusive evidence for the beneficial effects of PA interventions on cognitive and overall academic performance in children. They conclude that there is strong evidence for beneficial effects of PA on maths performance. The expert panel confirmed that more ‘high-quality’ research is warranted. By prioritising the most important research questions and formulating recommendations they aim to guide researchers in generating high-quality evidence. The recommendations focus on adequate control groups and sample size, the use of valid and reliable measurement instruments for physical activity and cognitive performance, measurement of compliance and data analysis.