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  • DEFINITION

    The coefficient of efficiency refers to the ideal (optimal) number of pupil-years required (i.e. in the absence of repetition and drop-out) to produce a number of graduates from a given pupil cohort in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the actual number of pupil-years spent to produce the same number of graduates. The coefficient of efficiency is a synthetic indicator of the internal efficiency of an education system (Lievesley and Sauvageot, 2000: 36).

    Lievesley, Denise, and Claude Sauvageot. Education for All Year 2000 Assessment: statistical document. Paris: UNESCO, 2000.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The third variable, the coefficient of efficiency, is obtained by dividing the number of pupil-years normally required to complete the primary cycle by the number of pupil-years actually spent. Thus, higher coefficients indicate greater efficiency, pupils spending on average less time to complete the primary education cycle. Although these data do not show the disparities between urban and rural areas, there appears to be a weak inverse correlation between the efficiency factors and the rurality of a country. In any case the data do illustrate how pervasive the problem of primary schooling ‘wastage’ is, rural pupils typically spending far too much time in primary education (IIEP and FAO, 2003: 88).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003.

  • DEFINITION

    Educational programmes that children and young people are legally obliged to attend, usually defined in tersm of a number of grades or an age range, or both.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If practice in most countries is followed, then the particular age(s) or grade levels(s) selected for a national assessment will fall within the period of compulsory education (most likely at primary-school level); furthermore, students will have been in school long enough foreducation to have had an impact. (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2002: 86).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    The term 'cost-benefit analysis' implies a systematic comparison of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of a form of investment in order to assess its economic profitability (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Cost-benefit analysis (or rate-of-return analysis, which is the type of cost-benefit analysis most frequently applied to education) provides a means of appraising these future benefits in the light of the costs that must be incurred in the present. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a measure of the expected yield of the investment as a guide to rational allocation of resources. Thus any private businessman who is contemplating investing in physical machinery must make a cost-benefit calculation to assess the likely profitability of the investment. In recent years, economists have paid increasing attention to the application of cost-benefit analysis to public investment and sophisticated techniques have been developed for measuring the costs and benefits of, for example, water resource and transport projects. Such projects are clearly analogous to private investments in physical capital and it is not surprising that techniques that are useful to the businessman should also prove useful to governments in making investment decisions (Woodhall, 2004: 24).

    Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

  • DEFINITION

    Inventory of activities related to the design, organisation and planning of an education or training action, including definition of learning objectives, content, methods (including assessment) and material, as well as arrangements for training teachers and trainers.

    CEDEFOP. Terminology of European education and training policy. 2nd ed. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Curriculum is, in the simplest terms, a description of what, why, how and when students should learn. The curriculum is not,of course, an end in itself. Rather, it seeks both to achieve worthwhile and useful learning outcomes for students, and to realize a range of societal demands and government policies. It is in and through the curriculum that key economic, political, social and cultural questions about the aims, purposes, content and processes of education are resolved. The policy statement and technical document that represent the curriculum reflect also a broader political and social agreement about what a society deems of most worth – that which is of sufficient importance to pass on to its children (Stabback, 2016: 8).

    Stabback, Philippe. What makes a quality curriculum? Current and critical issues in the curriculum and learning 2. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE, 2016.

  • DEFINITION

    Decentralization is the transfer of responsibilities from the central level to other actors.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If decentralization is to be successful – that is, improve policy management and responsiveness – it must be based on an effective and competent central government. Far from disappearing, the state remains a key player in the decentralized system, although its role changes. Some of its responsibilities can even take on increased importance. For example, a successful decentralization policy requires the state to ensure quality monitoring, preservation of equity and professionalisation (Lugaz and De Grauwe, 2009: 4)

    Lugaz, Candy and Anton De Grauwe. « Decentralization in education ». IIEP newsletter 27, no 3 (2009): 4.

  • DEFINITION

    Demand for formal education expressed by potential learners.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    But as obviously important as manpower needs were finally conceded to be, they paled before another force that soon began to dominate the education scene and give sleepless nights to authorities throughout Europe and North America. This other force was the explosive increase in popular demand for education, which led to the Rampant Expansion Phase (Coombs, 1970: 23).

  • DEFINITION

    Education imparted at a distance through the use of information/communication technology: radio, TV, the telephone, correspondence, e-mail, videoconferencing, audioconferencing, cd-roms, or online.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There are about 6,100 students following courses locally in private institutions or through distance education. These students pay their own fees and are not subsidized by government. Students studying overseas also spend a substantial amount on their studies. Total expenditure on higher education for Mauritian students studying abroad is estimated to be more than Rs. 1 billion per annum, the equivalent of almost twice the total recurrent budget of the publicly-funded higher education institutions (Mohadeb, 2006: 40). , Technological advances have allowed the expansion of programme mobility, and this concerns not only the small states of the Commonwealth. Due to its low cost and the fact that it reduces migration and brain drain, many countries worldwide are increasingly implementing this mode of educational expansion. Any institution wishing to introduce distance education can now use a range of open-source learning management systems or software platforms that support e-learning. Indeed, some of the large states in the Commonwealth have some of the largest distance-learning programmes and virtual universities in the world (Varghese, 2011: 18).

  • DEFINITION

    In a double-shift system, schools cater for two entirely separate groups of pupils during a school day. The first group of pupils usually attends school from early morning until mid-day, and the second group usually attends from mid-day to late afternoon. Each group uses the same buildings, equipment and other facilities. In some systems the two groups are taught by the same teachers, but in other systems they are taught by different teachers (Bray, 2008: 17).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the view of many people, these problems outweigh the benefits. Public opinion often opposes introduction of double shifts on the grounds that the system can save money but creates educational and social problems. The extent to which this view is valid may depend on the management of double-shift systems, i.e. it concerns not only the overall concept but also the ways in which the policies are implemented (Bray, 2008: 20).

    Bray, Mark. Double-shift schooling: design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 90. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2008.

  • DEFINITION

    Dropouts are pupils which either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. The number of dropouts is determined as a ‘residue’. We can deduce it by adding together the repeaters in grade (g) which are still in grade (g) in year (t+1) and the students promoted from grade (g) to grade (g+1) in year (t+1) and subtracting this total from the total enrolment of grade (g) in year (t).

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First of all, many studies have shown that an approach based on interaction not only leads to deeper, more efficient learning but also improves retention and averts dropout (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 73).

    Depover, Christian, et François Orivel. Developing countries in the e-learning era. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 96. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2012.
  • DEFINITION

    Programmes that, in addition to providing children with care, offer a structured and purposeful set of learning activities either in a formal institution (pre-primary or ISCED 0) or as part of a non-formal child development programme. ECCE programmes are normally designed for children from age 3 and include organized learning activities that constitute, on average, the equivalent of at least 2 hours per day and 100 days per year.

    UNESCO. Strong foundations: early childhood care and education; EFA global monitoring report, 2007. Paris: UNESCO, 2007.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Along with expanding enrollment and attention paid to early childhood care and education (ECCE) worldwide, there is a growing pre-primary workforce. In 2009, this workforce stood at more than 7.5 million people, with the largest growth seen in South and West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (ILO, 2012). Despite progress, the availability of trained pre-primary teachers still lags behind that of the primary workforce (Neuman, Josephson and Chua, 2015: 29).

    Neuman, Michelle J., Kimberly Josephson, and Peck Gee Chua. A Review of the literature: early childhood care and education (ECCE) personnel in low- and middle-income countries. Early childhood care and education working papers series, 4. Paris: UNESCO, 2015. 

  • DEFINITION

    Early childhood education provides learning and educational activities with a holistic approach to support children’s early cognitive, physical, social and emotional development and introduce young children to organized instruction outside of the family context to develop some of the skills needed for academic readiness and to prepare them for entry into primary education.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If the vicious cycle of inequality is to be broken, then child care and education have to start very early, before primary school. In most developing countries, early childhood education is restricted to urban middle-class children. Children from rural  areas and low-income families not only are denied access to this kind of education, but they enter primary school later than other children. (Caillods, 2006: 2)

    Caillods, Françoise. « Quality and equality ». IIEP newsletter 24, no 1 (2006): 2.

  • DEFINITION

    An EMIS can be defined as ‘a system for the collection, integration, processing, maintenance and dissemination of data and information to support decision-making, policy-analysis and formulation, planning, monitoring and management at all levels of an education system. It is a system of people, technology, models, methods, processes, procedures, rules and regulations that function together to provide education leaders, decision-makers and managers at all levels with a comprehensive, integrated set of relevant, reliable, unambiguous and timely data and information to support them in completion of their responsibilities’ (UNESCO, 2008: 101).

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The development of an effective EMIS is a complex and expensive undertaking under the best of circumstances. During emergencies, it is even more challenging because multiple organizations are generally involved in the provision of education, making it difficult to establish common data requirements and to coordinate data collection from the various organizations. In designing EMIS, therefore, it is important to consider the needs of all the groups that will rely on the information, including central ministry planners, officials of other national ministries (for example, finance), regional and district education officials, donors, and NGOs. Ultimately, for EMIS to be effective as a planning and management tool, national needs, not donor requirements, must be the primary force behind the development of the system. Despite the difficulties associated with the development of an EMIS, emergencies may provide an opportunity for establishing a better functioning EMIS than was in place before the crisis (IIEP, 2010: 156).

    IIEP. « Management capacity ». In Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    In the broadest sense, micro-planning covers all planning activities at sub-national level; that is, regional, local and institutional. Planning involves the future and has to do with the organisation and management of resources so as to enable the successful attainment of the set goals (…). Micro-planning is defined by its relationship with macro-planning. It is the expression of a desire to improve the operation of the education system by strengthening the planning work done at regional and local levels. It is a planning process that focuses on local characteristics and needs and builds local capacities. Micro-planning seeks to reach the objectives set at national level by assuring greater equality in the distribution of educational services, a better fit between these services and the needs of local communities, and the more efficient use of available resources. Micro-planning requires the participation of local communities in the planning process and this involvement can be a key to the success of the planned reforms at local level.

    Source: IIEP Training Materials

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Micro-planning and information systems must be amended to better capture rural issues and trends. Developing access in an appropriate way requires reliable data on out-of-reach children. Remote and school-less areas are often not adequately covered in government surveys (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 396).

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003. 

  • DEFINITION

    Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society (Coombs, 1970: 14).

    Coombs, Philip. What is educational planning? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 1. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 1970.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the beginning of the 1960s, educational planning was seen as a must for the newly independent countries in order to allow them to move ahead quickly and systematically with their human resource development. Planning Units were set up in Ministries of Education but were highly dependent on external expertise (IIEP, 2010: 9).

    Carron, Gabriel, Khalil Mahshi, Anton De Grauwe, Dorian Gay, and Sulagna Choudhuri. Strategic planning: concept and rationale. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2010.

  • DEFINITION

    Official statements of goals to which the system of education is directed.

    UNESCO Thesaurus

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    On the contrary, the need for collecting data, evaluating the efficiency of existing programmes, undertaking a wide range of studies, exploring the future and fostering broad debate on these bases to guide educational policy and decision-making has become evenmore acute than before. One cannot make sensible policy choices without assessing the present situation, specifying the goals to be reached, marshalling the means to attain them and monitoring what has been accomplished. Hence planning is also a way to organize learning: by mapping, targeting, acting and correcting (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 5).

    Kellaghan, Thomas, et Vincent Greaney. Using assessment to improve the quality of education. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 71. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2001.

  • DEFINITION

    Regions, localities, etc., in need of special educational action.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The concrete design of the policy therefore needed to be determined at a decentralised level and should fall under the administrative responsibility of the municipalities or priority areas (areas requiring urgent attention with respect to educational disadvantages) (Driessen, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Age at which pupils or studentswould enter a given programme or level of educationassuming they had started at the official entrance agefor the lowest level, studied full-time throughout andprogressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade. The theoretical entrance age to a given programme or level may be very different fromthe actual or even the most common entrance age.

    UNESCO. Education for all: literacy for life; EFA global monitoring report, 2006. Paris: UNESCO, 2006.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A necessary pre-condition for reaching UPE is to have all children of school admission age entering school. While policies adopted since Dakar have brought about major progress in access to schooling, school systems have not always been able to retain the large flow of new entrants, making achievement of universal primary enrolment and completion difficult (UNESCO, 2008: 53).

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

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    DEFINITION

    In education, the extent to which access and opportunities for children and adults are just and fair. This implies reduction of disparities based on gender, poverty, residence, ethnicity, language and other characteristics.

    UNESCO. Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This criterion refers to a universally accepted goal of schooling: the quest for fairness in access to educational opportunities, resources and outcomes by gender, social class, race, language origins and geographical location of students. Equity can be assessed in terms of inputs – do all students receive an appropriate amount of funding and resources from the state, commensurate with their needs? Do students with special needs get appropriate schooling? Equity can also be assessed in terms of outcomes – do all students finish their schooling with sufficient skills and a fair opportunity to progress in life? (Belfield and Levin, 2002: 46).

    Belfield, Clive R., et Henry M. Levin. Education privatization: causes, consequences and planning implications. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 74. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2002.

  • DEFINITION

    A range of activities organized outside of the regular school day, curriculum or course intended to meet learners’ interests. These activities can help learners become more involved in their school or community and can help them to develop social and soft skills and to promote wellbeing. These activities can include athletics, sport, voluntary work, photography, drama, music, etc. In some countries, this is also referred to as ‘co-curricular activities’

    IBE Glossary of curriculum terminology

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School plays a relatively limited role in the development of the child. The family still has the strongest influence, followed by the child's schoolmates and immediate surroundings. This explains why it is important to involve civil society in extracurricular educational activities, which are highly influential in pupils' education - probably at least as influential as the 800 hours spent in school each year. Extracurricular activities are mainly intended to organize the child's life outside of school hours as a complement to, rather than a substitute for, schooling. Experience shows that such activities are most effective when they are organized and directed in partnership with the school (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 66).

    Brunswic, Etienne, et Jean Valérien. Multigrade schools: improving access in rural Africa? Fundamentals of Educational Planning 76. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.

  • DEFINITION

    Education that is institutionalised, intentional and planned through public organizations and recognised private bodies and – in their totality – constitute the formal education system of a country. Formal education programmes are thus recognised as such by the relevant national education authorities or equivalent authorities, e.g. any other institution in cooperation with the national or sub-national education authorities. Formal education consists mostly of initial education. Vocational education, special needs education and some parts of adult education are often recognised as being part of the formal education system.

    UIS. International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 2011. Montreal: UIS, 2012. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Most empirical studies on the education-productivity relationship areconcerned with formal education. Yet education is not limited to theinstruction provided in schools, which means that part of the phenomenonis being ignored (IIEP and FAO,2003: 58)

    IIEP and FAO. Education for rural development: towards new policy responses. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2003.