Products and services—tangible and intangible—delivered or provided (UNDP, 2009: 54).
EQA mechanisms commonly focus on the perceived shortcomings of traditional quality assurance mechanisms. One of their main concerns is the quality of teaching and/or academic programmes, whereas earlier instruments tended to concentrate on the quality of research. Another growing concern is with outputs, linked to an overall change in the state’s steering policy. Governments tend to delegate more autonomy to these institutions and request ‘accountability’, i.e. a demonstration of valuable outcomes (Martin and Stella, 2007: 20).