Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary school.
UNESCO. Teaching and learning: achieving quality for all; EFA global monitoring report, 2013-2014. Paris: UNESCO, 2014.
More recently, increasing emphasis on the target of achieving Education for All (EFA) has led to renewed efforts to estimate and analyze the opportunity cost of pupils’ time and its effects on primary school participation rates, particularly in the case of girls, who represent well over half of all out-of-school children (Woodhall, 2004: 34).
Woodhall, Maureen. Cost-benefit analysis in educational planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 80. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2004.