Classification system designed to serve as an instrument for assembling, compiling and presenting comparable indicators and statistics of education both within countries and internationally. The system, introduced in 1976, was revised in 1997 and 2011.
Three levels of education are represented; namely below upper secondary, upper secondary and tertiary education, or their equivalent in vocational qualifi cations. These groups correspond to Level 2 or below, Level 3, and above Level 3 respectively on the International Standard Classifi cation of Education (ISCED) scale. They can be broadly thought of as low, intermediate and high levels (McIntosh, 2008: 19).