General or vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life.
As of 1998, Brazil brought in a National Fund for the Development of Primary Education and Teacher Development (FUNDEF). The fund adopted strategies establishing a minimum wage for education professionals. With 60 per cent of the fund devoted to the remuneration of teachers, the results of this initiative are encouraging since, after everal years of operation, teachers’ salaries have risen significantly. The law by which FUNDEF was created also set a period of five years for teachers to obtain the necessary certification to teach. Funds are set aside for the initial training of unqualified teachers; that is, who teach without having received any training (Vaillant, 2005: 31).