Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator. A GPI between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates parity between the genders. A GPI below 0.97 indicates a disparity in favour of males. A GPI above 1.03 indicates a disparity in favour of females.
Worldwide, the Gender Parity Index (GPI) for adult literacy improved significantly between 1970 and 2000-2004, especially in the Arab states (from 0.34 to 0.69), East Asia and the Pacific (from 0.62 to 0.92), sub-Saharan Africa (from 0.49 to 0.76) and South and West Asia (from 0.40 to 0.66). In Latin America and the Caribbean, gender parity in adult literacy rates has almost been achieved, standing at 0.98 (Lind, 2008: 27).