From the educational planner's point of view, output of given education cycle is defined as the number of pupils who successfully complete that cycle.
This assessment led the Hungarian authorities in the 1960s to set up a system based on a rather different approach to that used in the previous decade. The new system merely involved the mechanical matching of educational output to manpower needs. It adopted a comprehensive socio-economic approach covering a long period (15-20 years) and was largely based on demographic data to avoid imbalance between the long-term trends displayed by the education system, the economy and society. Hungary thus shifted from rigid, directive planning to more flexible and indicative planning (Bertrand, 2004).