A policy whereby all children are systematically promoted to the next grade except in exceptional circumstances (e.g. extended absenteeism due to illness) (UIS, 2012: 17).
UIS. 2012. Global education digest, 2012: opportunities lost: the impact of grade repetition and early school leaving. Montreal: UIS.
Students in every country are evaluated annually or more often by their teachers (and their school). These evaluations measure, on the basis of teacher- or school-designed examinations, whether a student has ‘learned’ the prescribed curriculum. Except in those countries where there is automatic promotion, they determine whether students repeat the grade or move on to the next one (Carnoy, 1999: 62)
Carnoy, Martin. 1999. Globalization and educational reform: what planners need to know. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 63. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.