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  • DEFINITION

    The unit cost is the overall cost per unit produced. However, depending on the unit costs one wishes to estimate, it is important to choose the relevant units. The most commonly chosen unit is the pupil. The average cost per pupil represents the average sum spent on each pupil. This is a good indicator of the resources consumed by education, but some authorities consider that the pupil is not a satisfactory unit of production of the system, because of the incidence of grade repetitions and dropouts. Another alternative may be chosen: the cost per pupil who has graduated (i.e. who has gained a certificate of successful completion of schooling). This is an indicator of the efficiency of the education system. Another worthwhile unit is the class. The resources consumed by education are more closely related to the class (one teacher per class in primary schools) than to the pupil. Like the average cost per pupil, this is an indicator of the utilization of these resources.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The unit costs of higher education are many times those of elementary education and, as has been frequently argued, the development of higher education is an integral part of the development of the whole education system. Therefore, when costing educational plans for primary and secondary schools it is essential to bear in mind the rapid development of higher education and its effects on the total cost picture (Vaizey and Chesswas, 1967: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    Universal primary education involves entering school at an appropriate age, progressing through the system and completing a full cycle (UNESCO, n.d.).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    With 57 million children still out of school, it is unlikely that countries with a lack of teachers will be able to meet the 2015 Education for All deadline for achieving universal primary education (UNESCO, 2014: 23).

  • DEFINITION

    The classification of the world’s economies based on estimates of gross national income (GNI) per capita for the previous year (…) [fixed], as of 1 July 2013, (…) upper middle income countries [as those where this figure is from] $4,086 to $12,615.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As illustrated in Figure 6, there is a strong link between secondary participation ratios and national wealth. As a group, low-income countries had the lowest participation ratio at 39% in 2009, compared to 64% for lower middle-income countries and 90% for upper middle-income countries. (UIS-UNESCO, 2011: 19).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes at ISCED level 3, or upper secondary education, are typically designed to complete secondary education in preparation for tertiary education or provide skills relevant to employment, or both. Programmes at this level offer students more varied, specialised and in-depth instruction than programmes at lower secondary education (ISCED level 2). They are more differentiated, with an increased range of options and streams available.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The process of bumping-down then occurs, all the way down to the low-qualifi ed. For example, suppose that following an expansion of higher education there are too many tertiary-educated individuals in the economy for the number of graduate jobs available; in some instances graduates accept jobs for which only an upper secondary level of education is required. Individuals with an upper secondary education then fi nd there are fewer employment opportunities for them at their own level, and so accept jobs for which a lower secondary education is required (McIntosh, 2008: 46).

  • DEFINITION

    De facto population living in areas classified as urban according to the criteria used by each area or country. Data refer to 1 July of the year indicated and are presented in thousands.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Before gaining independence, Singapore, as part of the British Straits Settlements, had the same pattern of education as Malaya. The city-state’s smaller and predominantly urban population, three quarters of whom are Chinese, has led to different issues surrounding the development of the education system and conflicts over the place of languages in education (Inglis, 2008: 126).