glossary

Find a definition

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Attrition refers to leaving teaching altogether, either to take another job outside of teaching, for personal reasons as child rearing, health problems, family moves, and retirement (Cooper and Alvarado, 2006: 18).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teach for America and similar programmes in other countries are playing a key role in getting good teachers to disadvantaged areas, while underlining the need in such areas for the best possible teachers. However, they cannot be seen as the solution to improve learning outcomes for all. Not only is there a high attrition rate among these teachers – sometimes 80% or more by their third or fourth year of teaching – but they make up only about 0.2% of the 3.5 million teachers in the United States (UNESCO, 2014: 253).

  • DEFINITION

    A certificate stating that a teacher is qualified to instruct in specified grades, subjects, or school units.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    College teaching certificate programs are developing in the United States to help better prepare graduate students who wish to become lecturers and professors. Iowa State University’s GSTC aims to enhance the professional development of graduate students who want to become professors in four-year schools of higher education emphasizing teaching (Roberts, 2014: 113).

  • DEFINITION

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While in many countries teacher allocation officially depends directly on student enrolment numbers, with minimum and maximum class sizes per school, actual teacher deployment often does not match student numbers (UNESCO, 2014: 249).

  • DEFINITION

    The process of acquainting teachers with the policies, rules, traditions, and educational offerings of a school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First, the model calls for a comprehensive new-teacher induction program that extends through the school year, resisting the quick teacher orientation approach found in many schools (Taranto, 2011: 5)

  • DEFINITION

    Teacher resource centres are used for delivery of professional development activities, such as in-service training, and to support teachers in their work in the classroom. TRCs have also been called teacher activity centres, teacher advisory centres, teacher support groups, microcentros, teacher circles, etc (Giordano, 2008: 26).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teacher resource centres and school clusters can be used to accomplish a variety of tasks and activities. Because they are local strategies, they target education services at the appropriate level. They can react quickly to find solutions to local problems. They can also be adapted to fi t local contexts and needs. As De Grauwe and Carron (2001: 3) have remarked, “what characterizes a resource centre more than [its definition] are its objectives” (Giordano, 2008: 28).

  • DEFINITION

    Planning of [teaching] manpower provision.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Both recruiting and source countries should manage teacher supply and demand within the context of organized recruitment which includes effective strategies to improve the attractiveness of teaching as a profession, and to ensure the recruitment and retention of teachers in areas of strategic importance (ILO, 2012: 14).

  • DEFINITION

    An institution where teachers acquire theoretical and practical knowledge related to teaching.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Ethiopia, where the gender parity index in primary education increased by 43% from 1999 to 2005, raised the number of female teachers through admissions quotas at teacher-training colleges (UNESCO, 2008: 129).

  • DEFINITION

    Decision by the competent authority to assign teachers to an educational institution other than the one they are currently working at.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teacher transfers have not been common in Indonesia, so the adoption of effective transfer systems at district level would be crucial. For instance, the Education Office in the district of Gorontalo identified 634 of its 5,000 teachers who could be redeployed, and implemented measures such as merging small schools, introducing multigrade teaching in schools with fewer than 90 students and providing incentives for teachers to move to remote schools (UNESCO, 2014: 253).

  • DEFINITION

    Utilisation rate the actual number of teaching hours compared to the theoretical duration of use: U. T. = (actual number of periods taught divided by theoretical number of periods to be taught on school premises) x 100. Example: If, in theory, each classroom can be used for 50 instructional periods per week, and if that room is used for just 25 periods per week, its utilisation rate is (25/50) x 100 = 50 %. This means that the number of pupils could double without having to build a new classroom. This rate can be calculated for each room, for each type of room (general education or specialised instruction) or for the whole set of classrooms in a school. It is hard to push a utilisation rate beyond 80 %, due to the difficulties in organising timetables for the different courses. Furthermore, this is not advisable: if the rate is 80 % utilisation, this already means dropping the principle of each class having its own classroom. Having said that, it is indispensable to leave one classroom free at all times so that pupils can use it for study during free periods (IIEP definition). , Optimal teacher utilization means the use of teachers in a way that responds to both the needs and constraints of the education system and teachers' own capacities and aspirations (Göttelman-Duret, 2000: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Drawing upon the results of relevant studies and reports on several developing countries, the monograph explores, in particular, two central aspects of efficient teacher utilization: the first relates to optimal staff allocation i.e. how to make sure that teachers, especially qualified and experienced, are deployed to where they are most needed, at the same time, taking into account their individual characteristics and preferences; the second crucial aspect of optimizing the utilization of teachers concerns the enhancing of teacher's commitment to quality-seeking and self-development through appropriate career patterns, promotion systems and other incentives (Thompson, 1995: vii).

  • DEFINITION

    This staff sub-category includes non-professional personnel who support teachers in providing instruction to students such as teachers’ aides and other paraprofessional personnel who are employed on a full-time or part-time basis by an education system. It excludes student teachers or other personnel who do not get paid for their employment.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Targeted additional support for students via trained teaching assistants is another way of improving learning for students at risk of falling behind. An initial early reading intervention delivered by teaching assistants in London schools in the United Kingdom was found to improve reading skills and have longer-term positive effects for children with poor literacy skills (UNESCO, 2014: 34).

  • DEFINITION

    Non civil-servant, low-cost young teacher [who is] hired [and managed by the government or local authorities] when there is a shortage of teachers [due either to a growing demand for teachers or to budgetary constraints restricting the government’s ability to recruit teachers at civil-service rates,]; in exchange for benefits in kind (health insurance, housing, budget for in-service teacher training) or in the form of government assistance and support (tuition to continue their own schooling or the possibility to enter into regular teaching positions afterwards, etc.).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Civil servant teachers feel that this method of recruiting gives the other categories of teachers advantages they lack; they would prefer these teachers to be recruited in a way that would guarantee their own status and some degree of equity within the teaching force. In Senegal the civil servant teachers explained that they were once recruited on the basis of a competitive exam for admission to teacher training colleges, but this has been replaced by recruitment of education volunteers who become contract teachers after two years (Lugaz and Grauwe, 2010: 115).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes designed mainly to prepare students for direct entry into a particular occupation or trade (or class of occupations or trades).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It was during this period that the human capital theory had a great impact on education policies with its emphasis on vocational and technical training adapted to labour-market needs. This, together with poor progress in spreading literacy, in particular through adult literacy programmes, resulted in UNESCO and UNDP deciding, in 1964, to adopt a new work-oriented functional literacy approach (Lind, 2008: 49).

  • +

    DEFINITION

    Job security, with protection from dismissal, except in specified circumstances, for teachers who have successfully completed a probationary period.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Countries that can afford the costs of staffing with this career-based system generally do not have problems of supply of teachers. The cases cited by the OECD tend to have more applicants than openings. However, there are some questions about quality associated with this approach: According to the report, in such a system “teacher education is not well connected to school needs, the entry selection criteria do not always emphasize the competencies needed for effective teaching, teachers lack strong incentives to continue developing once tenure is obtained, and the strong emphasis on regulations limits the capacity and incentives for schools to respond to diverse local needs (…)” (Schwille and Dembélé, 2007: 39).

  • DEFINITION

    Tertiary education builds on secondary education, providing learning activities in specialised fields of education. It aims at learning at a high level of complexity and specialisation. Tertiary education includes what is commonly understood as academic education but also includes advanced vocational or professional education (ISCED levels 5 to 8).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Agencies adopt and publish policies that prioritize ‘schooling’ (including secondary education) rather than only primary education, and promote access to tertiary education including through open and distance learning (Sinclair, 2002: 130).

  • DEFINITION

    A written source of information, designed specifically for the use of students, on a particular subject or field of study that is usually developed based on a syllabus and geared towards meeting specific quality and learning requirements. School textbooks pertain to an instructional sequence based on an organized curriculum. Ideally they serve as a complement to a good teacher and an inquiring learner.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Concerning the determinants of pupils’ learning, research on PASEC results from the 11 countries shows that family income, the use of the instruction language at home, and the possession of textbooks have a positive impact on learning. However, the following factors have a negative impact on learning: repetition, gender discrimination (against girls), very large class size, and rural location of schoolsConcerning the determinants of pupils’ learning, research on PASEC results from the 11 countries shows that family income, the use of the instruction language at home, and the possession of textbooks have a positive impact on learning. However, the following factors have a negative impact on learning: repetition, gender discrimination (against girls), very large class size, and rural location of schools (UIS-UNESCO, 2012: 40)

  • DEFINITION

    [Includes (1)] textbook editorial services: book planning, content review, copy editing, manuscript preparation for production, acquisition of rights and permissions [(…) (2) ; ] textbook production services: book design, illustration, technical staff photographs, other graphics, desktop publishing or typesetting, page preparation, filming [(…) (3) ; ] textbook manufacturing: paper procurement, purchase of printing-binding-packaging (World Bank, 2002: 12).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Education materials, such as textbooks, may be difficult to obtain for refugees absent from their own countries, or within a country where textbook production capacity has collapsed or distribution systems have failed (Sinclair, 2002: 41).