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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Rates of remuneration, usually annual in character, and having intervals between them, employees being able to ascend the scale as a result of age, length of service, merit, grade promotion, etc.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Teachers thus turn to private tutoring to supplement their salaries. If they charge around US$3 per lesson per student, just two lessons per month with four students earn them more than the regular salary of a teacher at the bottom of the salary scale (UNESCO, 2014: 272).

  • DEFINITION

    The number of subjects (or items) selected to represent a population in a research or evaluation study.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While evidence has long been available in many countries relating to access to, and participation in, education of a variety of sub-groups, national assessment data can bring this a step further by providing evidence about the achievements of the sub-groups. If sample sizes are sufficiently large, data can provide evidence on achievement by gender, region, sector (urban/rural), ethnic or language group membership, type of institution attended by students (public/private), or indeed any other variable that might be of interest (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    For a given sample, the sampling error is the error associated with the selection of a particular sample from a hypothetically infinite number of equivalent samples drawn from a target population. In order to measure the sampling error, the standard error for a particular statistic (such as the mean or the percentage) is used. The standard error is calculated by taking the square root of the variance. It can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population is expected to lie.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Most research utilizes only a sampling of the population of interest, inferring the results of the sample to be applicable to the larger population from which that sample was drawn. But many samples deviate from the rules of scientific probability sampling and therefore provide biased estimates that cannot be evaluated with respect to their accuracy. The reviewer must therefore take a very close look at the sampling procedures to establish the potential for bias and to check that important estimates of population characteristics are provided with estimates of sampling errors (Hite, 2001: 62).

  • DEFINITION

    A list of all members of a population used as a basis for sampling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Finally, in order to account for different probabilities of selection (due to shortfall in the data collection, disproportionate selection across strata, inaccurate sampling frames, missing data, etc.), sampling weights must be calculated (Postlethwaite, 2004: 102)

  • DEFINITION

    Education or training alternating periods in a school or training centre and in the work place

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some of the more recent programmes promote links with formal education and opportunities to attain specific standards. Various vocational training programmes now offer linkages with basic and secondary education services, usually on a part-time or sandwich-course basis. One example is “Chilecalifica” in Chile (Jacinto, 2007: 6).

  • DEFINITION

    Small schools organised [around] a reasonably well-resourced central school. Most satellite schools have just one classroom and one teacher who teaches several grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Satellite systems have to address difficult problems in managing progression through grades. The núcleo system in Bolivia aims to ensure that children complete their basic education at the consolidador, or central school. Another approach is to create satellite schools that provide a full primary cycle, such as those developed for remote rural communities in Burkina Faso (UNESCO, 2010: 192).

  • DEFINITION

    Express on a two-dimensional graph the values of single events/individuals plotted on two variables, with meaningful clusters of plotted dots implying correlations (Hite, 2001: 84).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Figure 2.17 displays a scatter plot of the GPIs of GER against GNP per capita […]. First, gender disparities favouring boys are found almost exclusively in low-income countries: GERs for males exceed those for females by more than 10 percentage points only in countries with GNP per capita of less than PPP US$3,800 (with two exceptions: Equatorial Guinea and Turkey). (UNESCO, 2006: 56).

  • DEFINITION

    [Grant awarded] for school and undergraduate levels of education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The majority of Bologna countries have developed specific actions to widen access. Two of these measures are clearly far more widespread than the others: the use of special admission procedures and targeted scholarships and grants for members of under-represented groups (Crosier and Parveva, 2013: 61).

  • DEFINITION

    Population of the age group officially corresponding to a given level of education, whether enrolled in school or not.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased access to primary and secondary education places great demands on the quality of the teaching force. During the 1990s, the increase in the school-age population outpaced the growth in the number of teachers worldwide (Anderson, 2004: 19).

  • DEFINITION

    School attendance is attendance at any regular accredited educational institution or programme, public or private, for organised learning at any level of education at the time of the census or, if the census is taken during the vacation period at the end of the school year, during the last school year (OECD, n.d.)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Colombia, vouchers are used to increase school attendance by children in low income families in areas which have space in private schools but none in public schools (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    Governing body that is mainly external and that may have consultative and/or governing duties.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The most interesting feature of the Minas Gerais reform is its multi-pronged approach. It simultaneously tried to: increase the autonomy of the schools; transfer financial resources directly to the control of school principals; create school boards with active parent participation; have principals chosen by school boards, among candidates pre-screened through an examination; create teachertraining programmes managed by the schools; and establish a state-wide evaluation of schools via a student-testing programme (Carnoy, 1999: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    Group [of] neighbouring schools around a larger core school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some countries’ plans aim to improve teaching quality by setting higher qualification standards for teachers; in Bangladesh, for example, a diploma in education is to replace the certification in education by 2014. Other plans emphasize less traditional approaches, such as school cluster-based in-service teacher education in Kenya, Namibia, Sudan and Timor-Leste. Rwanda aims to use mentors in every school to support teacher development (UNESCO, 2014: 218).

  • DEFINITION

    The merging of two or more attendance areas to form a larger school (cited in Peshkin, 1982: 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As discussed above, school consolidation was part of a broader movement of school reform. In the years between 1930 and 1970, the school term grew longer, class sizes shrank, and teachers became better paid. The average state share of funding for public education more than doubled between 1930 and 1950, from less than 20 percent to roughly 40 percent, and made a smaller jump again in the late 1970s (see Figure 5). The overall effect of these changes was to transform the small, informal, community controlled schools of the 19th century into centralized, professionally run educational bureaucracies. The American public school system as we know it today was born during this brief, tumultuous period (Berry and West: 8).

  • DEFINITION

    As a strategic planning device, school development planning is concerned with long-term goals (the mission) to be translated into planned and prioritized shortterm objectives and improvement actions (development planning), after careful analysis of the strength and weaknesses of the school (audit).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The findings from such studies suggest that in-service staff development is most effective when delivered in connection with a school development plan (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 69).

  • DEFINITION

    Comprises land, buildings and furniture. It includes physical facilities for teaching spaces and ancillary rooms (Beynon, 1997: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    When selected schools were converted from double-session to single-session, secondary school pupils spent about twice as much time in after-school activities, thus making better use of their school facilities (Bray, 2008: 90).

  • DEFINITION

    Informal and unofficial charges levied to support teachers’ pay and other expenses, and payments for uniforms and textbooks (UNESCO, 2010: 165).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Indeed, it is common for the contract of such an employee to include provision not only for the usual relocation expenses associated with moving one’s family between postings, but also for the school fees of any school-age offspring in an international school in the vicinity (Hayden and Thompson, 2008: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    School grants are transfers of financial resources and authority from governments or nongovernmental organizations directly to schools or small networks of schools. School grants are managed by the school director, a school council, or parent-teacher association (PTA) with the legal authority to receive and spend funds. School grants are often supported by education development projects financed by bilateral and multilateral organizations.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The policies implemented in these five countries are certainly not the same. In some cases, grants correspond to small sums expected to cover only minor maintenance and operational expenditure. In others they may be larger, enabling schools to use them more freely and flexibly, particularly to improve quality. Such differences have to be borne in mind when assessing the impact of grants (de Grauwe, Fushimi and Prew, 2011: 8).

  • DEFINITION

    Services of health education and screening (for example, by dentists), disease prevention and the promotion of healthy living conditions and lifestyles provided in school. This includes basic medical treatment if provided as an integral part of the public health function, such as dental treatment. This includes interventions against smoking, alcohol and substance abuse. It excludes vaccination programmes.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, student welfare services include meals, school health services, and transportation to and from school (OECD, 2013: 171).