glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The coefficients of a linear function of the values of the sample units used to estimate population, stratum, or higher stage unit totals are called raising, multiplying, weighting or inflation factors of the corresponding sample units. If the raising factors of all the sample units are equal, the common raising factor is called the raising factor of the sample, and the sample itself is called self-weighting. It should be noted that the raising factors depend not only on the sampling plan but also on the method of estimation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The sample estimates derived from a disproportionate sample design are generally prepared with the assistance of ‘weighting factors’. These factors, represented either by the inverse of the selection probabilities or by a set of numbers proportional to them, are employed in order to prevent inequalities in selection probabilities from causing the introduction of bias into sample estimates of population parameters. The reciprocals of the selection probalities, sometimes called ‘raising factors’, refer to the number of elements in the population represented by a sample element (Ross, 2005).

  • DEFINITION

    A sample which has been selected by a method of random selection.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The design of sample surveys is a core topic in statistics. Data analysis emphasises understanding the specific data at hand, assuming they represent a larger population. The concept of simple random samples is essential for 15-year-old students to understand the issues related to uncertainty (OECD, 2009: 102).

  • DEFINITION

    The rate of return represents a measure of the returns obtained, over time, relative to the cost of the initial investment in education. Rates of return can be measured from the private individual’s point of view or from society’s point of view. Private rates of return measure the future net economic payoff to an individual of increasing the amount of education undertaken whilst social rates of return measure the benefits to society of additional education. The calculation formulae for both types of returns are the same, only the costs and benefits that are included differ between the two (OECD, 2004: 139).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In addition to raising the pay-off to higher levels of education, globalization appears to have raised the rate of return to women’s education. In many countries, rates of return to education for women are higher than for men (Carnoy, 1999 : 31).

  • DEFINITION

    The creation of a strong desire to read that continues throughout the student’s life.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Broad reading of selfselected material is associated with the acquisition of vocabulary and comprehension skills, and with the development of the reading habit and of creative imagination. It provides experience in the use and retrieval of information, essential for problem-solving and lifelong learning (UNESCO, 2006: 217).

  • DEFINITION

    Reading literacy is understanding, using, reflecting on and engaging with written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society (OECD, 2009: 23).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Thus, in the fourteen SACMEQ II countries and territories, the proportion of girls reaching a ‘desirable’ mastery in reading literacy is higher (by more than one percentage point) than the proportion of boys in six countries and lower in only three (UNESCO, 2006: 61).

  • DEFINITION

    Act of preparing, or degree of preparedness, for formal reading instruction or any other reading activity or task.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Criterion-related validity refers to the capacity of test scores to predict future performance, or to estimate current performance on some valued measure other than the test itself. For example, a reading readiness test might be used to predict future reading achievement, or a test of dictionary skills might be used to estimate the capacity to use a dictionary (as determined by observation) (Hite, 2001: 49).

  • DEFINITION

    An expression [referring to] reading, writing and arithmetic (…) coined by the English Banker and politician, Sir William Curtis around 1807 (Jackson-Barrett, 2011: 22).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    From 1946 to 1964, the definition of literacy was limited to the acquisition of reading, writing and artithmetic, usually referred to as the 3R’s (Agnaou, 2004: 24) , Raven (1999) contends that we must move beyond the 3Rs to achieve the wider goals of education. Nonetheless, today the principles of the 3Rs are embedded into the Australian education system (Jackson-Barrett, 2011: 22)

  • DEFINITION

    Training to refresh skills and knowledge which may have been partly forgotten, usually as a result of a temporary interruption in occupational life.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Another feature of the Latin American unions relates to the fact that many are funded by membership fees (generally 1 per cent of members’ basic pay). This enables them not only to maintain a skeleton central structure, but also to propose other benefits such as health services, training, refresher courses and recreational activities (Vaillant, 2005: 39).

  • DEFINITION

    A statistical procedure used for estimating the value of a dependent variable based on the value of one or more independent variables.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Over the past two decades, many attempts have been made to assess empirically the impact of aid on economic development. The methods range from case studies of a single project to crosscountry regression analysis of the impact of total aid flows. Despite their large number and their variety, these studies are inconclusive (UNESCO, 2008: 169).

  • DEFINITION

    The coefficients attached to particular variables in order to define a linear combination of variables that is optimally correlated with another variable of interest (the criteria variable).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Successive calculations of this equation, which assume specific values of S for different levels of education, for example primary education (S = 6), secondary education (S = 12) and higher education (S = 18) can be used to estimate the average rate of return to one additional year of education, as Mincer demonstrated that the regression coefficients (b) can be interpreted as the average rate of return (r) (Woodhall, 2004: 78).

  • DEFINITION

    Relative poverty is seen as poverty that is partly determined by the society in which a person lives. Someone who may not be regarded as poor in Bangladesh may (with the same financial resources) be considered as poor in Sweden (Van der Burg, 2008: 2).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    On the one hand is the conventional human capital analysis that education can serve to lift a country out of absolute and relative poverty and hence out of the economic marginalisation that can be a precursor to instability in a country; on the other hand is the argument that education produces and reproduces—or actually exaggerates—social divisions, therefore contributing to the likelihood of tension (Davies, 2005: 359)

  • DEFINITION

    A misleading general term for any measure of reliability employing correlation coefficients. Several different coefficients [exist] : a stability coefficient; an internal consistency coefficient; a coefficient of equivalence.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the researchers involved in data collection would be important in asserting the quality of the results. Rater-reliability coefficients (r values) approaching 1.0 indicate much better training and reliability, and therefore less potential measurement error. Coefficients below 0.50, and certainly those approaching 0, would be considered unacceptable, and thus present a potentially serious source of measurement error (Hite, 2001: 67).

  • DEFINITION

    Designed to catch up with a lag in a given subject or field.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The most extreme approach to private supplementary tutoring is a total ban. This approach prohibits all supplementary tutoring of a commercial nature, though would normally permit voluntary or publicly-provided remedial tutoring for slow learners and others in need (Bray, 2007: 77).

  • DEFINITION

    Number of repeaters in a given grade in a given school year, expressed as a percentage of enrolment in that grade the previous school year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Senegal has been strongly committed to basic education and has rapidly expanded access…. The country is now looking for a better balance between quantity and quality. Indicators of quality still seem to lag behind, however, with relatively high repetition rates in the higher grades, a low ranking in the PASEC survey and little progress according to the national assessment system (UNESCO, 2005: 52).

  • DEFINITION

    This staff sub-category includes all students employed on a part-time basis (beyond their studies) for the primary purpose of assisting in classroom or laboratory instruction or in the conduct of research. Personnel in these positions are typically graduate students who hold such titles as teaching assistant, teaching associate, teaching fellow, research assistant, or equivalent personnel with other titles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In some education systems, doctoral research is undertaken by individuals employed by the university as junior researchers or research assistants, in addition to their being enrolled as doctoral students (UIS-UNESCO, 2012 : 59).

  • DEFINITION

    The setting apart, assigning, or allotting of money, materials, personnel, or services for a particular purpose.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    These pressures have thus prompted a number of privatization-type reforms to include private payments by students, the creation of private institutions, and resource allocation based on performance (Belfield and Levin, 2003: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    Indoor or outdoor areas that offer a variety of resources (e.g. supplies, materials, information, equipment). Use a more precise term, if possible.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    One way of compensating for the low level of access to technology in developing countries and making technology more accessible for learning purposes is to establish resource centres equipped with Internet-enabled computers. These centres may be multi-purpose halls in schools, universities, or community centres or in premises dedicated to a particular project, such as the Open, Distance and E-learning Centres established by the African Virtual University (Depover and Orivel, 2013 : 76).

  • DEFINITION

    Education has been formally recognized as a human right since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. This has since been affiimed in numerous global human rights treaties, […] [which] establish an entitlement to free, compulsory primary education for all children; an obligation to develop secondary education, supported by measures to render it accessible to all children, as well as equitable access to higher education; and a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education (UNESCO and UNICEF, 2007: 7)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This question brings out the existence of an implicit ranking among rights – some rights are more important than others and should take priority. The discussion above on the weighting of levels of education refl ects this. Most would agree that the more education an individual takes, the better for both the individual and the society in which he or she lives. Nonetheless, there are different views and practices on where society’s obligation to enable individuals to continue pursuing their right to education tapers off and individuals’ obligations to fend for themselves increase (Oxenham, 2010: 28).

  • DEFINITION

    Knowledge acquisition involving no transformations or processing of the information received.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The main focus of the Strategic Plan is to improve the quality of education within schools, and a strong emphasis is put on developing planning and management skills within the Ministry. The team agreed that quality in schools could only improve if the teaching practices in the classroom were changed from lecturing and rote learning to student-centered methods and active learning (Mahshi, 2009: 4)