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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    An index for measuring current price or quantity levels relative to those of a selected base period., A price index defined as a fixed weight, or fixed basket, index which uses the basket of goods and services of the current period. The current period serves as the weight reference period and the base period as the price reference period. It is identical with a weighted harmonic average of the current to base period price relatives using the value shares of the current period as weights (OECD, 2008).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    We also calculated Paasche indexes, which use a country’s own quantities of goods consumed as weights to calculate the price indexes. In other words, Laspeyres indexes apply weights to all other countries’ consumption based on the pattern of consumption in the chosen base country, while Paasche indexes are based on consumption within the country of analysis. Using both indexes allowed us to see the impact that different weights for quantities of consumption (consumption patterns in the base country versus those of the country of analysis) had on our calculations of relative prices (Morel, McGuire and Mossialos, 2011: 1545).

  • DEFINITION

    Non-profit entity that consists of learners’ parents (or their legal guardians), teachers and other administrative school staff. The aim of a PTA is usually to promote participation of parents (or guardians) in school-level decision making and sponsor or facilitate fundraising initiatives for supplemental educational materials.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As has already been noted, teachers themselves must undergo a learning process if they are to be successful in teaching about HIV/ AIDS and sexual health. Given the scale of the problem, this can be effected only within the school. Hence the school becomes a centre for the dissemination of messages about HIV/AIDS, not merely for its students but also for its staff. There is no reason why the process should stop there. Industry invests considerable resources, mostly by way of staff time, in educating its staff about the disease. Schools could learn from this, extending their educational services in this domain to non-teaching staff, to the families of teachers and other school staff, and ultimately to the members of parent-teacher associations and their dependants (Kelly, 2000: 85).

  • DEFINITION

    Teachers whose statutory working hours are less than those required of full-time teachers in a given country.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Further, in most countries, including Chile, private schools lower their costs partly through selecting out ‘higher cost’ students and by ‘free-riding’ on the system of public education, i.e. by hiring a higher proportion of part-time teachers (many who also work in public schools) (Carnoy, 1999: 57).

  • DEFINITION

    Management approach where all stakeholders are consulted and take part in decisions, to a certain extent.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In 2006, the UNAIDS Secretariat convened regional and global consultations on creating effective partnerships for HIV prevention trials, which recommended the development of good participatory practice guidelines. These guidelines are based on principles of shared ownership, participatory management, transparency, access and accountability, and addressed some of the concerns that led to the stopping of the tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis trials in Cambodia and Cameroon in 2005 (UNAIDS, 2007: 25).

  • DEFINITION

    Supervisor whose role is to advise and support teachers and headteachers.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The education project is elaborated by a committee of local actors, including teachers, principals, district education board representatives, and headed by a pedagogical advisor (Giordano, 2008: 78).

  • DEFINITION

    Assessment procedure regarding the quality and effectiveness of the academic programmes of an institution ,its staffing, and/or its structure, carried out by external experts (peers). (Strictly speaking, peers are academics of the same discipline, but in practice, different types of external evaluators exist, even though all are meant to be specialists in the field reviewed and knowledgeable about higher education in general.) For a review, the source of authority of peers, types of peers, their selection and training, their site visits, and the standards to be met may vary. A review is usually based on a self evaluation report provided by the institution and can be used as a basis for indicators or as a method of judgment for (external) evaluation in higher education (Vlasceau, Grünberg and Pâlera, 2007: 67).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    EQA systems, standards-based or not, most commonly use quantitative data combined with qualitative judgement. Most quality assurance agencies have developed instruments that may either consist of open questions to focus on qualitative analysis, or request the collection of a set of statistics. Peer review is, however, typically a phase where qualitative judgement is the prevailing mode (Martin and Stella, 2007: 59).

  • DEFINITION

    The practice of having students of the same or similar age assist with the instruction of other students who may need supplemental aid.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Findings indicated the effectiveness of peer tutoring in promoting significant gains in mathematics performance for both the tutor and the tutee, including with low achievers, mildly handicapped or socially disadvantaged children. Heller & Fantuzzo (1993) have demonstrated the effectiveness of combining peer tutoring with parent tutoring in mathematics with 10-11-year-old students (Topping, 2000: 21)

  • DEFINITION

    The degree to which a development intervention or a development partner operates according to specific criteria/standards/ guidelines or achieves results in accordance with stated goals or plans.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Low reading achievement levels are suggested by first grade repetition rates, and observations show that most pupils in grades five or six have difficulties in understanding what they read. Furthermore, achievement levels of rural and marginal-urban school pupils are much lower than the national average. Such low performance levels deserve priority public attention at a time when economic growth requires a well educated and trained population (Schiefelbein, 1992: 14).

  • DEFINITION

    The emphasis of this type of monitoring is on school results. Its goal is mainly to stimulate competition between schools in order to promote academic achievement. The most common monitoring devices used are the regular measurement of learner achievement by standardized tests and examinations, combined with the publication of league tables and systematic (external) auditing of schools.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In order to achieve better efficiency and effectiveness in resource management and allocation, which SBM represents, some countries have delegated to schools a wide range of decisions related to resource allocations (the UK and the State of Victoria, Australia, are two examples). Education systems in these countries experienced the imposition of performance and accountability concepts on schools (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 32)., In the UK, the Financial Management Initiative, introduced in the early 1980s, embodied performance management but was assessed as being unsuccessful in influencing the allocation of public sector resources or increasing the degree of public accountability (Osbourne et al 1995; Sharifi and Bovaird 1995). While some performance measures were part of the Conservative adminstration’s management of the public sector, there has been a large rise in their use following the election of the Labour administration in 1997. Performance targets, their publication and the linking of such targets to the resources allocated by Treasury to government departments is now widespread in the UK public sector (Propper and Wilson, 2003: 251).

  • DEFINITION

    Performance-based budgeting aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditure by linking the funding of public sector organizations to the results they deliver, making systematic use of performance information (Robinson and Last, 2009: 2).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Skills development funds can be powerful instruments for reform in other areas of a TVSD system. For example, the shift from input-oriented to output- or outcome-oriented systems can be promoted using performance-based financing approaches (King and Palmer, 2010: 110).

  • DEFINITION

    Refers to all management decisions affecting the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees, i.e. its human resources.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    School-based management (SBM) evolved in the State of Victoria, Australia, to become the ‘Schools of the Future’ (SOF, hereafter). This chapter details the development of SOF and provides a historical and political framework for the case study. The chapter highlights relevant issues related to school administration, curriculum delivery, resource allocation, personnel management, financial management, assessment and examination, and school planning and development (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 62).

  • DEFINITION

    Instruction in the exercise, care, and hygiene of the human body, especially a course in gymnastics, athletics, and so on, as in a school or college.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The overlapping shift system increased the school day to 11 lessons, allowing the classrooms to accommodate 55 lessons a week. This represented a 22.2 per cent increase in room utilization. Space for the students when they were all on the compound together was found by using laboratories, workshops, the library, and sports fields (for physical education) (Bray, 2008: 25).

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    DEFINITION

    A simplified language used for communication among groups that do not share a language in common; may draw on elements from multiple original languages. A pidgin is an acquired second language, not a mother tongue (contrast with Creole).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    During registration, various categories among them such as the stark illiterates, the semi illiterates i.e. those who can speak and understand 'pidgin' English, the drop-outs from both primary and junior secondary schools as well as those who possess some micro skills such as painting, dry-washing of clothes, floor and tile mopping, etc. should be identified and assigned to appropriate learning and training or retraining groups (Ihejirika, 2003: 129)., Le pidgin bichlamar, langue nationale de la République du Vanuatu depuis l’indépendance du pays en 1980, apparaît comme un outil essentiel à l’observation et à la compréhension de ces changements rapides et profonds, notamment dans le contexte de la capitale Port-Vila (Vandeputte Tavo, 2012 : 241).

  • DEFINITION

    This approach, elaborated by the RAND Corporation, USA in the middle of 60s attempted to integrate in one system the elements of planning, programming and budgeting all together and was called “planning‐programming‐budgeting system” (PPBS). The abbreviation PPBS stands for the following three phases of this procedure: a) Planning is what may be called strategy in the sense that at this point the concern is to define, using prospective studies, the set of long term objectives for which various services will be responsible. b) Programming consists of defining the administrative steps and for organizing the necessary logistics for carrying out the set of actions in order to reach the selected objectives. In this phase, the resources in terms of human resources, capital (investment) and research are determined for the duration period covered. The programmes are laid out through a work plan that is, however, of only indicative value. c) Budgeting is the phase when the annual parts of the programme are translated into annual budget, taking into account the financial constraints. The idea is to adopt on a voluntary and progressive basis, within the administration, a coherent way of preparing, implementing, and controlling decisions made at each level of responsibility. In brief, the PPBS method is to set certain major objectives, to define programmes essential to these goals, to identify resources to the specific types of objectives and to systematically analyse the alternatives available.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It was presumed -- or perhaps desired, wished or ordained -- that evaluations at each level would dictate reallocations of resources between activities, according to the marginal impact yield of the additional money spent. PPBS' rigorous hierarchical structure, its grounding in economics -- the key question was: Where is the marginal dollar most effective?” --, its faith in the inherent comparability of various policy purposes on the basis of expenditures, their common denominator; its promises of both control and fine tuning of all government actions, plus continuous feedback and monitoring; all combined into a vision of an ultimate fusion of budgeting and policy-making. The promised end result was to be a smoothly functioning machine, highly transparent and stable, yet capable of constant reallocations resulting from continuous and integrated evaluations of the impact of policies. (…) All real attempts to implement PPBS as a system were soon abandoned, without much tearshedding. The reasons for the demise of policy-making as top-down-budgeting embodied in PPBS (and later on in ZBB) are well known. The most obvious is the enormous information overload it inflicts on any system, since the evaluation and continuous reassessment of a very wide range of policies requires vast financial resources and, more importantly, consumes a great deal of decision-makers' time (OCDE, 1996: 32).

  • DEFINITION

    An area designed for outdoor play, which usually contains climbing, jumping, swinging or sliding equipment for children.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Double-shift systems are most common in urban areas.This is because: land is more expensive in towns, and administrators therefore try to use buildings and playgrounds as efficiently as possible (Bray, 2009: 27).

  • DEFINITION

    Method used in item analysis to provide a measure of the correlation (relationship) between the score (right or wrong) that students get for an individual item and the overall score they get on the remaining items (Anderson and Morgan, 2008: 152).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The point-biserial index of discrimination for a particular category of an item is a comparison of the aggregate score between students selecting that category and all other students. If the category is the correct answer, the point-biserial index of discrimination should be higher than 0.20 (Ebel and Frisbie, 1986) (OECD, 2012: 133).

  • DEFINITION

    Policy formulation has to do with defining long-term goals, which might well extend beyond the medium-term plan, and with selecting major strategies to reach these goals. It is partly founded on the results of the sector analysis, but it also depends on already existing education policies and is further influenced by the overall development policies of the country (as embedded in national development plans and/or poverty reduction strategy papers, etc.), by the international commitments made (e.g. the Development Millennium Goals, the EFA Goals, the Salamanca Declaration, etc.) and by the programme(s) of the political party or parties in power. Policy formulation is therefore not a straightforward technical exercise but rather a complex process, which should start with a review of existing policies and which further implies intensive interaction between the planning experts and the political decision-makers for designing the new policy (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 15).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Jamaica, in a separate study, teachers expressed frustration over being left out of the policy formulation process. Although they said they were willing to play a larger part in developing policies, many felt that policy-makers were not genuinely interested in their opinions, and many said they were anxious about how new policies would affect their day-to-day work (UNESCO, 2014: 220).

  • DEFINITION

    The number of people per unit area, generally expressed per square kilometre.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In areas of low population density, the market approach to decentralization (as opposed to outright privatization) can only be achieved by maintaining schools too small to be efficient (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 47).

  • DEFINITION

    A population increase over a given period. It represents the sum of natural increase and of net migration, generally expressed for a year. The size of a population increases when there are more births than deaths (natural increase) and more immigrants than emigrants (net migration). The annual growth rate is the ratio of the variation in population size over the year to its size in the middle of the year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Another explanation for the perceived decline in quality may be that the public school system has reached a capacity constraint. With rapid population growth, government schools may be overcrowded, therefore private school providers are needed. In the Dominican Republic, for instance, private schools are subsidized if they enrol low-income students where the public schools are at excess capacity. (Belfield and Levin, 2003: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    The population pyramid represents the breakdown of the population by gender and age at a given point in time. It consists of two histograms, one for each gender (by convention, men on the left and women on the right) where the numbers are shown horizontally and the ages vertically. The numbers by gender and by age depend on interactions between fertility, mortality and migrations. The shape of the pyramid and its variations over the years depend above all on the variations in fertility.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This trend in the number of births, coupled with a long term trend of declining mortality, is changing the shape of the population pyramids into a nearly rectangular form until about age 60, a shape that is characteristic of a demographically “aged” population (United Nations, 2013: 5).