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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The need for a logical classification of the range of objectives in objective-based planning is at the origin of the drafting process of programmes and projects. The objectives system is usually presented as a system of roots and a trunk, hence its common name, the objectives tree. Such tree-like illustrations, however, are subject to some basic rules: (a) There can only be one first row objective, also called the global objective. (b) Each subordinate objective is related to one objective in the row above. (c) Interactions between objectives in the same row and feedback links (i.e. effects becoming causes and vice versa) are not represented The level expresses the place of the objectives in the cause-and-effect system. In the diagram, the level is represented by the row.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Breaking down an overall nonmeasurable objective into intermediate and elementary sub-goals by identifying their causal relationships ensures that the evaluation system will be operational. The breaking down of a general objective into sub-goals is commonly called an objective tree (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 2006) (Chaponnière, Marlet, Perret, Bouleau and Zaïri, 2012: 49).

  • DEFINITION

    Occupational mobility encompasses several types of change: change in employer, tasks performed, position, or skill level (Lainé, 2010: 37).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The training institutions are usually designed to produce enough qualified teachers to cover projected retirements, some expansion or contraction as the case may be, and general loss due to known rates of mortality and occupational mobility (Kelly, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Bilateral and multilateral aid for all sectors, as well as aid that is not allocable by sector, such as general budget support and debt relief (UNESCO, 2014: 393).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Official development assistance from bilateral donors grew by 9% annually between 1999 and 2005, but preliminary data indicate a downturn in 2006 (UNESCO, 2008: 5).

  • DEFINITION

    Designated by the state to serve official functions such as in administration and education (also sometimes called 'national language').

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Policy and innovation in bilingual education can significantly improve minority language speakers’ mastery of official languages (UNESCO, 2014: 284).

  • DEFINITION

    Vocational training given in the normal work situation. It may constitute the whole training or be combined with off-the-job training.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There is also a closely related set of learning activities aimed at tradespeople and technicians, such as apprenticeships, which are known as vocational education. Often the former is associated with formal settings, whereas the latter is associated with on-the-job training that is combined with aspects of formal education in an intermittent and progressive way (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 21).

  • DEFINITION

    The teacher takes pupils from all grades at the same time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Throughout Africa, descriptions of the conditions of one-teacher schools and multigrade classes reveal serious problems: make-shift facilities, lack of teaching materials, and no support for teachers. All of these factors complicate the lives and the task of rural teachers, who are often younger, less experienced and less qualified than their urban counterparts (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 43).

  • DEFINITION

    A school built to a design which does not include self contained classrooms (Martinho, 2012: 328).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The clearest example of this was seen in the open-plan school environments created during the 1960s and 1970s, which, as later research in both the UK and U.S. showed, were often not used for the child-centered, discovery learning for which they were intended (Woolner, Clark, Laing, Thomas, and Tiplady, 2012: 53).

  • DEFINITION

    An individual within a community who has an important impact on the opinion of others [and to whom others] in the community tend to look to ... for information and advice.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In refugee and IDP situations, it is especially important to provide the opportunity for educated refugees to serve as the teachers and youth workers, since this rebuilds the morale of opinion leaders (Sinclair, 2002: 54).

  • DEFINITION

    The benefit foregone when a scarce resource is used for one purpose instead of the best alternative use.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The pure bimodal model is found in universities that, alongside their traditional face-to-face instruction, offer distance education that makes extensive use of e-learning. The distance offerings generally target different users (those for whom the opportunity cost of moving to the campus is too high) and lead to a limited number of degrees (in the French university system, such degrees amount to less than 10 per cent of all diplomas awarded by a given university). An example here is the recent merger of the Université du Québec à Montréal with Téluq (Télé-université du Québec, which had been wholly dedicated to distance education), to form a university based on the pure bimodal model (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 28).

  • DEFINITION

    A language’s conventional writing system, including spelling, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The policy implications of the understanding that literacy for all requires the development of literate societies are: […] an orthography which reflects the oral competence of the learners, closely linked to language policies ; a suitable pedagogy […] (Lind, 2008: 85).

  • DEFINITION

    Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    More recently, increasing emphasis on the target of achieving Education for All (EFA) has led to renewed efforts to estimate and analyze the opportunity cost of pupils’ time and its effects on primary school participation rates, particularly in the case of girls, who represent well over half of all out-of-school children (Woodhall, 2004: 34).

  • DEFINITION

    The likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    All research aspires, in one way or another, to identify causal links between educational efforts and subsequent educational outcomes (Hite, 2001: 90).

  • DEFINITION

    Utilization of the outdoor environment to promote experiential learning and enrich the curriculum.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Outdoor education includes both environmental education and education for sustainable development, as they are a part of NCC. McRae (1990) has further divided outdoor education into knowledge focused outdoor teaching and learning, ecologically focused outdoor environmental education and outdoor leisure education that is focused on personal growth. In this study, outdoor education includes all these aspects, as these aspects are all part of an ordinary school day and National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2004) (Smeds, Jeronen, Kurppa and Vieraankivi, 2011: 268).

  • DEFINITION

    Products and services—tangible and intangible—delivered or provided (UNDP, 2009: 54).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    EQA mechanisms commonly focus on the perceived shortcomings of traditional quality assurance mechanisms. One of their main concerns is the quality of teaching and/or academic programmes, whereas earlier instruments tended to concentrate on the quality of research. Another growing concern is with outputs, linked to an overall change in the state’s steering policy. Governments tend to delegate more autonomy to these institutions and request ‘accountability’, i.e. a demonstration of valuable outcomes (Martin and Stella, 2007: 20).