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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Used in some parts of the world to refer to languages unique to the nation as distinguished from international languages (...). In other countries,‘national language’ refers to the official language (Bühmann and Trudell, 2008: 6)., Language in widespread and current use throughout a specific country or in parts of its territory, and often representative of the identity of its speakers. It may or may not have the status of an official language (OECD, 2008).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In some situations where refugees expect a long wait before it is safe to return home, it may be possible to use a curriculum that ‘faces both ways’. Thus Afghan refugees in Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s used a version of their home country curriculum but with the added subject of Urdu, the national language of Pakistan (Sinclair, 2002: 72).

  • DEFINITION

    Difference, during a year or a given period, between births and deaths. Natural increase is the difference between the number of live births and deaths, generally calculated over a year. It is positive when the number of births is higher than the number of deaths and negative when the number of deaths exceeds the number of births.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the industrialized countries, as expected, the natural growth rate is very low. In the United Kingdom, the birth rate has fallen since the 1950s, while the crude death rate has remained practically unchanged. As a result, the rate of population growth is very low (1.9 per thousand). A similar situation is found in Japan (Châu, 2003: 89).

  • DEFINITION

    Number of pupils in the official age group for a given level of education who attend school at that level, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Family and other commitments can be expected to cause some irregularity of attendance among most learners. However, with reliable and competent facilitators, aided by special local arrangements to encourage regular attendance, attendance rates can be expected to average around 75 to 80 per cent. Without such arrangements, planners should expect much lower attendance rates (Oxenham, 2008: 48). , According to the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, however, the primary net attendance rate was 80%, well below the 98% net enrolment ratio estimate provided by the UIS for 2008. One reason for this discrepancy is likely to be differences in the way information is collected on child age (UNESCO, 2014: 54).

  • DEFINITION

    Enrolment of the official age group for a given level of education, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Had the rate of decline between 1999 and 2008 been maintained, the number of children out of school would be 23 million by 2015, just below the EFA target of a 97% net enrolment ratio (UNESCO, 2014: 53).

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of pupils of official primary school entrance age who are enrolled in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age. It is the equivalent of the Age-specific enrolment rate of official primary entrance age.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Children are more likely to complete primary schooling if they enter at the right age. However, the net intake rate for the first year of primary school increased only slightly between 1999 and 2011, from 81% to 86% – and it rose by less than one percentage point over the last four years of the period. Some countries have made great progress in getting children into school on time, however, including Ethiopia, which increased its rate from 23% in 1999 to 94% in 2011 (UNESCO, 2014: 3).

  • DEFINITION

    Net migration is the difference between the number of persons who enter a territory (immigrants) and the number who leave (emigrants), generally calculated over a year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The spatial distributions of net migration for the major ethnic groups will be mapped in order to visualise some of the key migration processes that underpin the net patterns (Stillwell, 2010: 1140).

  • DEFINITION

    We will consider a (fictional) generation of 100 women from birth through to the end of the childbearing period of their life: we will suppose that this generation is subject to the mortality observed during year n, and that at each age (from 15 upwards) it has the fertility observed in year n. This generation (the number of which will have been reduced by mortality to less than 100 by the age of 50) would give birth to a number of daughters which is, by definition, the net reproduction rate (for year n). This index shows the extent to which one generation would be replaced by the next under the mortality and fertility conditions of the year in question: if the rate is greater than 100, the generation would be replaced by a larger generation and the population would increase; if it is less than 100, the generation would tend to be replaced by a smaller generation and the population would decrease.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In some Asian countries, such as the Republic of Korea, China and Thailand, the net reproduction rate fell very rapidly in past years and is now less than 1. Although the populations of these three countries are still growing slightly today – as we saw above – the fact that the net reproduction rate is less than 1 indicates that the populations will diminish in the long term (Châu, 2003: 93).

  • DEFINITION

    Pupils entering a given level of education for the first time; the difference between enrolment and repeaters in the first grade of the level.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Table 5 presents another view of the impact of ECD: the percentage of new entrants to grade 1 of the primary school who had attended some form of ECD programme (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 94).

  • DEFINITION

    Interested individuals who are admitted to follow selected higher education course without being enrolled in the entire programme. As a consequence they do not enjoy the same rights as enrolled students.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This term does not yet have an English equivalent which is widely used in research.

  • DEFINITION

    Learning activities typically organized outside the formal education system. The term is generally contrasted with formal and informal education. In different contexts, non-formal education covers educational activities aimed at imparting adult literacy, basic education for out-of-school children and youth, life skills, work skills and general culture. Such activities usually have clear learning objectives, but vary by duration, in conferring certification for acquired learning and in organizational structure.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    One might expect non-formal education to be an ideal area of application for DE, with a large number of potential learners who are often geographically dispersed and receptive to alternative learning methods that are rooted directly in real-life practices. In point of fact, though, DE projects in this sector are rather rare and poorly documented (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 40).

  • DEFINITION

    Non-malleable variables are those that influence the outcomes of schooling, but are not, in the short term, readily amenable to manipulation by those decision-makers responsible for the management of the education system. Some examples of these kinds of variables would be the socio-economic circumstances of students' home backgrounds, the geo-graphical environment of the school, and the distance of the school community from various educational and cultural facilities (Ross and Postlethwaite, 1995: 38).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The researchers distinguished between non-malleable factors, which cannot be shaped by planners, and malleable factors which can be the focus of interventions (Bray, 2001: 47).

  • DEFINITION

    Usually, the ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide. More broadly, it means the knowledge and skills required to effectively manage and respond to mathematical demands posed by diverse situations, involving objects, pictures, numbers, symbols, formulas, diagrams, maps, graphs, tables and text. Encompassing the ability to order and sort, count, estimate, compute, measure, and follow a model, it involves responding to information about mathematical ideas that may be represented in a range of ways.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In any international study it is the participating countries who decide together what will be tested (sometimes countries agree to do what other countries have done. Two years after PISA 2000, 11 countries decided to repeat the original PISA assessment). It is quite clear to the curriculum units or centres, as well as to the researchers involved, that what is tested in the international study is only one part of the whole curriculum. It is presumed that they find numeracy (or mathematics at the junior secondary level) and literacy (or reading at the junior secondary level) important (Postlethwaite, 2005: 80).