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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    While students transition towards L2, L1 is retained as a language course or to provide instruction in an academic subject area.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Collier’s research concludes that maintenance bilingual education models are more effective in improving academic achievement in the long-term (Rivera, 2002: 3)

  • DEFINITION

    Malleable variables are those that influence the outcomes of schooling and, in the short term, may be manipulated by decision-makers. Some examples of these would be textbook provision, teacher in-service training programmes, homework requirements, school staffing, school curricula, etc. (Ross and Postlethwaite, 1988: 38).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Since 1980, empirical research has yielded a body of knowledge that has provided information on which malleable factors ‘matter most’ and which other factors have a more marginal impact (Scheerens, 2000: 15).

  • DEFINITION

    Use in connection with three main tasks: supervision of and responsibility for the work of others; allocating labour, material and capital to produce a high return; and decision making.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A management problem arising from the silence and stigma that attach to AIDS is that good information does not exist on the number of teachers who are HIV-infected, on the extent of AIDS-related absenteeism, or on the number who have progressed to full-blown AIDS (Kelly, 2000: 69).

  • DEFINITION

    General demand for labour, or demand in particular industries or sectors of the economy.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    With the effect of the 1940s, the adoption of a centralized planning system in what was then the Soviet Union, and the aim to meet the manpower needs of industry led the authorities to extend planning to include the evaluation of the manpower requirements of the economy and to relate these requirements to the output of the education system. This was the emergence of the 'manpower approach', which was adopted in the 1950s by the satellite countries of Eastern Europe which took the Soviet system as their model (Bertrand, 2004: 15).

  • DEFINITION

    Analysis and projection of current manpower needs as well as future needs in light of long-term economic planning.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The case for a ‘manpower approach’ was particularly strong in developing nations because their over-all development was conspicuously handicapped by shortages of all kinds of specialized manpower. Thus it made sense to give initial priority to educating the most needed types of manpower for economic growth, for without such growth the desired long-run expansion of education and other major social objectives would simply not be possible. The trouble was, however, that these nations were not equipped to do the kind of educational and manpower planning that the situation required (Coombs, 1970 : 25).

  • DEFINITION

    The marginal cost is the extra cost incurred by the production of an additional unit. This increment depends on the increase in output. In the field of education, the purpose of the calculation may, for example, be to evaluate the cost of enrolling one additional pupil in school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    One of the possible benefits of e-learning is that it may be a way of adding students at lower marginal costs to an expanding system if the overheads of traditional campuses are taken into account (Bates, 2001: 92).

  • DEFINITION

    To give marks to students' work.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Should the learners be asked to write a letter or a story? What length and spelling accuracy would count as a pass? What kinds of calculations should they be asked to undertake and write down? All these questions are practical, but answering them depends on reliable knowledge of what can be expected of the average learner on a particular course, as well as on considerable skill in composing and marking the assessments (Oxenham, 2008: 109).

  • DEFINITION

    Policy ensuring equality of educational opportunity in order to achieve universal education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    One response to this position is simply to point out that mass education systems require such staggering numbers of school teachers that it is usually impossible to recruit solely or even mainly from the most promising in terms of initial qualifications and talents (Schwille and Dembélé, 2007: 36).

  • DEFINITION

    Programmes at ISCED level 7, or Master’s or equivalent level, are often designed to provide participants with advanced academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies, leading to a second degree or equivalent qualification. Programmes at this level may have a substantial research component but do not yet lead to the award of a doctoral qualification. Typically, programmes at this level are theoretically-based but may include practical components and are informed by state of the art research and/or best professional practice. They are traditionally offered by universities and other tertiary educational institutions.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Central to the Bologna Process is the commitment of countries to establish a three-cycle degree structure in higher education. Contrary to persisting misconceptions, neither the Bologna Declaration nor the subsequent ministerial communiqués rigidly prescribe the length of these cycles. They merely state that 1st-cycle qualifications should last a ‘minimum of three years’, while master’s degrees should range from 60 to 120 ECTS credits (Crosier et Parveva, 2013: 32)., Foreign degrees are a huge lure for many in India, as in many other developing countries. More than 70 per cent of the students go from India to countries like the USA for master’s and doctoral degree programmes. Only a small proportion go for undergraduate studies (Tilak, 2011: 101).

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    DEFINITION

    The average of a series of values. The mean is the total number of the observed criteria, divided by the number of classes for these criteria - for example, the score mean of a set of pupils is the sum of all the scores of the pupils divided by the total number of pupils.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Each of these strategies will reduce the number of students with low levels of achievement taking an assessment, and this, of course, will impact on the school’s average performance (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 80).

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    DEFINITION

    The median is the value at which the cases (or records) of a distribution are split into two equally large parts. When date are arranged in the increasing order, the median is the number which separates them into equal groups. Hence, the median can be described as the centre of the distribution.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Given the information contained in our datasets, the concept of social mobility that we can measure is represented by mobility between occupations ranked according to the median income paid by each occupation in the generation of 3 children in each country (Cecchi et al., 1999: 354).

  • DEFINITION

    Guidance and support provided in a variety of ways to a young person or novice (i.e. someone joining a new learning community or organisation) by an experienced person who acts as a role model, guide, tutor, coach or confidante.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Induction may involve formal programmes intended to support and enhance teacher learning. Such programmes are typically organized around the process of mentoring and the role of the mentor (Schwille and Dembélé, 2007: 32).

  • DEFINITION

    Language of central or more powerful countries, such as ex-colonial languages (may overlap with 'prestige languages').

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Especially in the urban centres, the material, commercial, and social benefits attached to acquiring literacy and comprehension of the metropolitan language were large, as the rising demand for white-collar workers by commercial enterprises, railway companies, or the colonial administration was concentrated in the major cities (Frankema, 2012: 349).

  • DEFINITION

    Language spoken by a numerically smaller population and/or to the language spoken by a politically marginalized population whatever its size (…). In the second case, the term minoritized language is sometimes used (Bühmann and Trudell, 2008: 6).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The OECD (…) distinguishes between three main groups of ethnic minorities, namely: migrant groups in societies; minority indigenous populations; and historically disadvantaged groups (e.g. African-Americans, gypsies, etc.). Another important distinction is official minority language groups (e.g. the French-speaking region in Canada, the Swedish-speaking community in Finland, the French and Italian-speaking regions in Switzerland, etc.) (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 73).

  • DEFINITION

    Organization of the curriculum or of instructional courses in self-contained units ('modules') designed for management by the learner (UNESCO). , Packets of subject-related teaching materials containing objectives, directions for use, and test items (ERIC)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Another salient prediction is that today’s youth will likely change jobs and careers several times during their working lifetimes and may work for as many as 12 to 15 different companies. In order to become truly sustainable, TVET must meet the challenges posed by this increase in worker mobility. This can be accomplished by providing a sound basic TVET foundation that can be supplemented – either by conventional or modular instruction – when required for job upgrading or change (UNEVOC, 2006: 11).

  • DEFINITION

    A continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As a consequence, the data obtained may provide inaccurate information, making its use for immediate policy purposes or for monitoring over time problematic (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    A context/person using only one language.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Ideally then, adult literacy learners should learn literacy in their mother tongue. In monolingual countries there is no issue. However, in multilingual countries practical questions do arise for both governments with their national responsibilities and non-governmental agencies that wish to do the best for their more limited clienteles (Oxenham, 2010: 67).

  • DEFINITION

    Main language spoken in the home environment and acquired as a first language. Sometimes called the home language., The main language used constantly from birth to interact and communicate with a child by their carers, family, friends and community. (If more than one language is constantly used in this way throughout childhood, a child can be considered bilingual.) (Pinnock, 2009: 7).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In order to provide beneficial structured activities for large numbers of unemployed young people, it is more cost-effective to offer lowcost training in language skills (literacy in the mother tongue, or study of the international languages used in the locality), which can enhance general employability as well as self-esteem (Sinclair, 2002: 80).

  • DEFINITION

    Education which starts in the mother tongue and gradually introduces one or more other languages in a structured manner, linked to children’s existing understanding in their first language or mother tongue (Pinnock, 2009: 7).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Effective mother-tongue-based multilingual education teaches linguistic and communicative competencies that are relevant to African multilingual economies characterised by a small formal economic sector and a large informal sector (Ouane and Glanz, 2010: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    Refers to the use of the learner’s mother tongue as a medium of instruction (Bühmann and Trudell, 2008: 8).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Ethiopia, the model proposed by the national policy of 1994 and practiced fully by the more homogeneous of the semi-autonomous regions calls for eight years of mother tongue-based education, including continuing literacy and all curricular content in the L1, with both L2 Amharic and L3 English studied as subjects, the latter (presumably because it is a foreign language rarely heard outside school) beginning in grade 1 (Benson, 2010: 330).