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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
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    L1

    DEFINITION

    First language or mother tongue (language learned from infancy in the home). However, in some multi-lingual contexts, L1 may refer to a local language that is not spoken in every home (Honeyman, 2014).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Thus, the 2003 PISA report cites research that questions whether proficiency in L1 is a crucial prerequisite for L2 acquisition (Inglis, 2008: 78).

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    L2

    DEFINITION

    Second language used in instruction, often an official or prestige language.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In contrast to the transitional bilingual programmes, in the ‘maintenance’ bilingual programmes students study L1 and L2 as subjects while also being instructed in both languages (Inglis, 2008 : 79).

  • DEFINITION

    The system of relationships between the supply of people available for employment and available jobs.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For example, if all universities were suddenly closed the resulting flood of students onto the labour market would lower the wages of all young workers (Woodhall, 2004: 32).

  • DEFINITION

    Collective relations between employers and employees, between employers and trade unions, or between employers, unions and the government. Use "personnel management" for individual relations between employers and employees.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The institutional argument is supported by studies that show earnings inequality rising more in the USA, for example, especially at the low end of the earnings distribution, than in countries such as Canada, France, and Germany. Workers in those countries were exposed to similar changes in the relative demand for low-skilled workers as in the USA, but faced more amenable labour legislation and better employer-labour relations (Carnoy, 1999: 36).

  • DEFINITION

    Efforts to change the way in which a language is learned, such as including an endangered language as part of a language of instruction policy to ensure its survival (Honeyman, 2014).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This move essentially equates ‘language’ with Ausbau language’ (Kloss 1967), giving a central role to social construction (Blommaert 2005) or Ausbauisation (Fishman 2008; Tosco 2008), namely the process through which a variety within a continuum is socially elevated via status, corpus, and acquisition planning and subsequently becomes a ‘standardised tool of literary expression’ (Kloss 1967, 69) within a polity (Tamburelli, 2014: 253).

  • DEFINITION

    Efforts to alter the structure of a language, including the creation or modification of scripts and orthography, standardization, and expansion of the lexicon to include new vocabulary (such as for modern scientific and technological terms) (Honeyman, 2014).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Corpus planning may pertain to any level of language (orthography, pronunciation, syntax, lexicon, pragmatics), and frequently results in a set of accepted standard forms of a language, codified in a normative grammar and dictionary or proscribed rules of usage (Stroud, 2002: 21).

  • DEFINITION

    Room equipped with a set of projectors, sound recording and reproducing equipment, to be used together or separately for language instruction and speech therapy [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Since educational systems will have to change more frequently and more rapidly than in the past, they will need new techniques for doing it. The usual way has been ad hoc, piecemeal and episodic and has typically involved superimposing something new on top of the old, without really changing the old, as for example, adding instructional television, a language laboratory or a film projector to the conventional classroom procedures (Coombs, 1970: 57).

  • DEFINITION

    Language(s) used to convey a specified curriculum in a formal or nonformal educational setting.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For multigrade classes, decentralization can, for example, favour the implementation of programmes that take account of the specific cultural character of the immediate environment, including the choice of language of instruction. In small rural schools, children can begin their schooling in their mother tongue and subsequently move on to use the language of instruction (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 68).

  • DEFINITION

    The effort to influence a language, including its prestige, function, structure, and/or acquisition.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This is well recognized in the area of language planning, which emphasizes the need to understand the patterns of language use and attitudes of the speech community, and, it should be added, also of other speech groups (Inglis, 2008: 148).

  • DEFINITION

    A price index defined as a fixed weight, or fixed basket, index which uses the basket of goods and services of the base period. The base period serves as both the weight reference period and the price reference period. It is identical with a weighted arithmetic average of the current to base period price relatives using the value shares of the base period as weights (OECD, 2008).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A Laspeyres price index can be defined as a period 0-weighted arithmetic average of price changes between periods 0 and t. However, it takes time to compile the results of a household expenditure survey, so in practice statistical agencies use prior period b survey weights to rebase a CPI that runs from the price reference period 0 (b < 0 < t) (Armknecht and Silver, 2012: 1).

  • DEFINITION

    A process by which an individual assimilates information, ideas and values and thus acquires knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences., Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’s knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behaviour and world views (UNESCO, n.d.).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As has already been noted, teachers themselves must undergo a learning process if they are to be successful in teaching about HIV/ AIDS and sexual health (Kelly, 2000: 85).

  • DEFINITION

    Difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills to the normal level expected of those of the same age, especially because of mental disability or cognitive disorder.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some children are more likely to learn properly than others. There are plenty of causes which can explain why certain pupils face learning difficulties: They may be in poor health, they may be less able to learn (innate ability), they may have a mother language different from the working language of the school, they may belong to a family which has less motivation for supporting school values than others, or they may be exposed to a shorter study time, both inside and outside the school (Postlethwaite, 2004: 12).

  • DEFINITION

    Conditions, forces, or factors within or exogenous to an educational setting capable of influencing the setting or those within it.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The quality of financial management at the school level determines the effectiveness of many aspects of the learning environment including knowledge (the curriculum), materials, technology, people and time (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 111).

  • DEFINITION

    Materials designed so that learners can learn from them without much help from a teacher: they are pre-recorded, stored teaching.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Despite this potential, the teaching-presence role is confused in that the learning package that instantiates CB pedagogical models is supposed to be self-contained and complete, requiring only teacher–learner interaction for marking and evaluation (Anderson and Dron, 2010: 84).

  • DEFINITION

    A community that promotes a culture of learning by developing effective local partnerships between all sectors of the community, and supports and motivates individuals and organisations to learn.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    These were generally structured as action research projects, providing a personal learning experience for teachers who were keen to ‘walk the talk’ in experimenting with new models of learning and teaching in schools, and to participate simultaneously in teacher networks as members of a learning community (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 116).

  • DEFINITION

    Rules, principles, and procedures used to facilitate learning, frequently applicable to a variety of specific learning tasks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In addition to deciding on educational goals beyond literacy and on a broad learning strategy to engage interest and maintain the will to learn, every literacy programme has had naturally to adopt, adapt or develop a method for teaching the actual skills of reading, writing and written arithmetic (Oxenham, 2010: 96).

  • DEFINITION

    Low-income countries that, according to the United Nations, have human resource weaknesses (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and are economically vulnerable. A category used to guide donors and countries in allocating foreign assistance.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Even in industrialized nations, deteriorating working conditions and low salaries are discouraging people from entering the teaching profession. In many of the least developed countries, the majority of primary school teachers have, at most, a lower secondary qualification, and frequently no professional training at all (Anderson, 2004: 19).

  • DEFINITION

    Teaching method in which information is presented orally to a class with a minimal amount of class participation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Many critics have pointed out inconsistencies such as professors lecturing about the virtues of active learning and student-centred pedagogy (Schwille and Dembélé, 2007: 61).

  • DEFINITION

    A teacher's outline of what he hopes to accomplish with the students during a particular lesson. It may list aims, main teaching points, media and resources, teaching and evaluation methods, etc.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For example, the POs visit schools twice a month, armed with a list of 50 indicators of school performance. They review teachers’ lesson plans and attendance books (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 40).

  • DEFINITION

    The vocabulary of a language; if formal and standardized, spelling and definitions are agreed-upon.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Because of the linguistic and cultural strengths within the Roma family and community, most young children can narrate a story and understand riddles, teasing and jokes, on the basis of an expanding lexicon and ability to formulate complex sentences (UNESCO and Council of Europe, 2007: 14).