glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Students are exposed only to the official language of instruction, whether or not they understand it (Honeyman, 2014).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where the student is from a majority language community, immersion education can be quite effective, but when the student is a minority language speaker, immersion can significantly impede academic achievement (Buhmann and Trudell, 2008: 8).

  • DEFINITION

    Courses, seminars or workshops in which [teachers] participate on the job (Anderson, 2004: 111)., The process by which teachers engage in further education or training to refresh or upgrade their professional knowledge, skills and practices in the course of their employment (ILO, 2012: 4).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although in-service teacher training is beginning to acquire a degree of legitimacy, it still faces a number of diffi culties, notably as a result of the nature of the job, which requires that theory and practice be closely intertwined. Thus, the main problem in implementing teacher training programmes lies in the organization and supervision of classroom practices (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 44).

  • DEFINITION

    Integration of students/pupils with special educational needs into mainstream education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Larger-scale adult literacy and continuing education programmes will hardly succeed without holistic and inclusive education and language policies (Lind, 2008: 124).

  • DEFINITION

    To compensate for the unidimensional nature of each indicator, it is necessary to build a system of indicators, that is, a coherent set of indicators that together provide a valid representation of the condition of a particular education system, not just an ad hoc collection of readily available statistics. Ideally, an indicator system will provide information about how individual indicator components work together to produce an overall effect. In other words, the policy and interpretative value of all the information to be gained from a system of indicators is greater than the sum of its parts. To provide this overall picture, the selected indicators should be logically or empirically linked. The linkages should proceed from a model or framework that describes how the education system works. The model by itself permits the broader assessment of an indicator’s relevance (OECD/CERI, 1992: 15).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For most countries, the appearance of indicators and indicator systems in higher education constitutes a response to two policy objectives: exercising more rigorous monitoring in this field and, in times of fiscal restraint, establishing a more direct and observable link between funding and performance. The goal of using a system of indicators is to make the autonomy and diversification of higher education institutions compatible with accountability and effective management of these institutions. Indicators thus provide a means of not only external monitoring of these institutions by governments, but also internal monitoring of overall institutional goals or specific ones set by departments or service units (Martin and Sauvageot, 2009: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    Quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect the changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As a strategic planning device, school development planning is concerned with long-term goals (the mission) to be translated into planned and prioritized short-term objectives and improvement actions (development planning), after careful analysis of the strength and weaknesses of the school (audit). Furthermore, the process itself of putting the improvement actions into practice (implementation) has to be systematically analyzed on the basis of appropriate indicators and followed by corrective action (monitoring) (De Grauwe and Carron, 2011)., First of all, many studies have shown that an approach based on interaction not only leads to deeper, more efficient learning but also improves retention and averts dropout. Now, retention rates are regarded as an important indicator of efficiency in DE, because theserates are often low, particularly in developing countries, where people have many obligations to family and community, and schoolwork habits are not very suitable for autonomous learning (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 73).

  • DEFINITION

    Permits pupils to advance at their own pace, and does away with the established grade structure altogether.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    We turn then to direct learning materials and support, textbooks and learning materials. Escuela Nueva Primary depends very heavily on textbooks, workbooks and teachers’ guides, which are specifically designed to support self-guided, continuous progress learning in a multigraded setting. There is also much use of teacher- and student-developed learning material. Escuela Nueva Secondary depends much more on standard government-approved texts, reflecting the need at this level to prepare students for government tests and the perceived need for subject specialism (Farrell and Hartwell, 2008: 30).

  • DEFINITION

    Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday, expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although the infant mortality rate has dropped substantially in most countries, it is still high in the developing countries (Châu, 2003: 72).

  • DEFINITION

    The process of learning which goes on continuously and incidentally for each individual, outside the organized situation of formal or nonformal education. Do not confuse with "nonformal education".

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In general, informal learning does not involve teaching by a second party, is not organized, and does not lead to a recognized credential. Informal learning, experience and practice are closely-related concepts. Without careful distinction, most life experiences can be viewed as involving informal learning, but clearly certain types of activities are more relevant than others when it comes to the formation of relevant competencies (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 54).

  • DEFINITION

    Refers to the unofficial, or non-registered and untaxed, therefore informal, sector of the economy.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increasingly, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) will need to reflect this same comprehensive approach. While it is recognized that the treatment of skills development in PRSPs is weak, the World Bank notes that many governments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are beginning to put in place policies that emphasize training both for the formal and for the informal sector. Specialized agencies, such as UNESCO and the European Training Foundation, also acknowledge an increased demand for support and advice from partner countries in the area of TVSD (King and Palmer, 2011: 22).

  • DEFINITION

    Technology which provides for the electronic input, storage, retrieval, processing, transmission and dissemination of information.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Of course e-learning is more than just on-line distance education. Any programme that uses information and communication technology to enhance the learning process may be considered to fall into the category of e-learning (Bates, 2001: 10).

  • DEFINITION

    General or vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As of 1998, Brazil brought in a National Fund for the Development of Primary Education and Teacher Development (FUNDEF). The fund adopted strategies establishing a minimum wage for education professionals. With 60 per cent of the fund devoted to the remuneration of teachers, the results of this initiative are encouraging since, after everal years of operation, teachers’ salaries have risen significantly. The law by which FUNDEF was created also set a period of five years for teachers to obtain the necessary certification to teach. Funds are set aside for the initial training of unqualified teachers; that is, who teach without having received any training (Vaillant, 2005: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    For input-based funding systems, public funds are provided to meet the costs of the inputs into the institution, for example, staff salaries, equipment, consumable items, buildings. Institutional managers are required to spend the funds on the inputs for which they are provided, but within these constraints it is [the organisation, for example the university} which decides what outputs to produce (Sanyal and Martin, 1998: 9)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The funding scheme for public universities offers a mixed picture and the lack of reform is somewhat baffling for adherents to isomorphism theory. In the pre-Bologna phase, public HE funding in Poland was exclusively input based (Dobbins and Knill, 2009: 420).

  • DEFINITION

    A body that ensures that the official regulations applying to a particular type of institution or activity are obeyed.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Finally, in many countries, education authorities have been granting greater freedom to individual schools to manage their own affairs, or, as a result of being constantly required to negotiate with unions even small changes in practice, have been losing control over what goes on in schools. The erosion of the role of school inspectorates illustrates this trend (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 31).

  • DEFINITION

    Training conducted in a company school or arranged with technical schools, universities, or professional agencies.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While most apprenticeships are undertaken in an alternance mode in which employment periods and training periods are interspersed, some are also provided through a trainand- place model in which apprentices undertake an initial period of institution-based training followed by an on-the-job employment and training period (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2013: 181).

  • DEFINITION

    Outline of procedures, courses and subjects to be provided by an educational institution over a given period of time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As noted above, although there are many reform movements in process today in the USA, one of the most rapid developments in recent years is that of the ‘charter schools’. The charter was a clear written agreement between a group of teachers and the school district to reorganize some part of the instructional programme (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 52).

  • DEFINITION

    Capital asset that has no physical existence, such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, mineral rights, secret manufacturing processes, start-up costs, capitalized development costs and goodwill [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Each year a university is granted a subsidy from the state budget for the performance of its activities. Within the subsidy, the sum for capital investments and running costs are explicitly defined. Capital investments are used for the financing of long-term tangible and intangible property, and ensure its technical valorization (Hallak and Poisson, 2009: 101).

  • DEFINITION

    Systematic organization of curriculum content and parts into a meaningful pattern.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Curriculum integration refers to ‘pulling together’ two or more subject-matters. Typical examples include social studies and language, science and mathematics, and art and literature. The opposite of an integrated curriculum is a ‘subjectspecific’ curriculum, where all learning is ‘nested’ within a specific subject-matter. Typically, each subject is allocated a specific time block in the daily and weekly schedule (Anderson, 2004: 149).

  • DEFINITION

    A number representing a person’s reasoning ability (measured using problem-solving tests) as compared to the statistical norm or average for their age, taken as 100.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Becker (1964) reported a study of a sample of high school and university graduates who had been given intelligence tests at school that showed that even when intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were held constant, there was a strong relationship between length of education and earnings (Woodhall, 2004: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    Emphasizes mutual understanding of two or more cultures. Some bilingual education programs emphasize cultural issues, becoming 'Intercultural Bilingual Education' or 'Bilingual Intercultural Education' programs., Éducation interculturelle met l’accent sur la compréhension mutuelle entre deux cultures ou davantage. Certains programmes mettent l’accent sur des problématiques culturelles, devenant des programmes «d’éducation bilingue culturelle » ou « d’éducation interculturelle bilingue » [traduit par l’IIPE].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Often used interchangeably, the acronyms intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE) represent different incarnations of a model that began with bilingual education (BE) in Latin America over 50 years ago, focusing on indigenous language as an instrument of 'Hispanisation' (Catter, 2011: 724).