glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    A histogram is a graph which consists of a series of rectangles, each of which represents the frequencies (or relative frequencies) [...] of the tabled distribution.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For elementary education, almost universal enrolment can be observed. However at the next level, the histogram is skewed with the poorest quintile starting to fall off the scale: most poor income families expect their children to enter the job market (UNESCO, 2006: 44).

  • DEFINITION

    Any activity related to the school programme that learners are asked to complete outside of lesson time at school and that can take place in the home or in the community. The type of homework set by schools varies. In the early years, activities are usually based on supporting literacy, numeracy and thinking skills. In the junior phase of learning, homework is more likely to focus on reading, revising, report writing, investigating and project work. Learners in the senior years are likely to undertake a range of homework activities dependent on the course of study being completed.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Routines established by teachers in many classrooms include those for entering and leaving the classroom,participating in class discussions or conversations with the teacher, completing and submitting homework, and taking quizzes and tests (Anderson, 2004: 67).

  • DEFINITION

    The sum of ways in which a household acquires its income, its savings and asset holdings, and by which it meets its food and non-food needs (Save the Children, 2008: xi).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    According to one study of nomads in Kenya, they make a careful choice of which child to send to school in order to minimize the loss to the household economy (Atchoarena et Gasperini, 2003: 132).

  • DEFINITION

    Knowledge, skills, competences and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate personal, social and economic well-being.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Education is now universally recognized as a form of investment in human capital that yields economic benefits and contributes to a country’s future wealth by increasing the productive capacity of its people. Thus expenditure on education can be partially justified in terms of the potential contribution of education to economic growth (Woodhall, 2004: 25).

  • DEFINITION

    A method of statistical inference for evaluating the plausibility of the null hypothesis in the light of the observed data.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Despite the increased level of uncertainty introduced by the missing data, therefore, subsequent analyses using a single EM-imputed dataset fail to account for such uncertainty and yield standard errors that are artificially small, threatening the validity of subsequent hypothesis testing (Cox, McIntosh, Reason and Terenzini: 2014: 377)