glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The gross domestic product divided by the population.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Romania and Slovenia, schools with more than one academic track have been divided into as many schools as there are tracks. This sampling strategy unquestionably increases segregation in comparison with countries that have not adopted the strategy. Similarly, in the Netherlands, schools have been divided in accordance with the level of education, which also increases academic segregation. The index used is per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2007 (Dupriez, 2010: 46).

  • DEFINITION

    Means that boys and girls would experience the same advantages and disadvantages in educational access, treatment and outcomes. Namely appropriate schooling environments, practices free of discrimination, and equal opportunities for boys and girls to realize their potential. In so far as it goes beyond questions of numerical balance, equality is more difficult to define and measure than parity.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It is further helpful to define priority target groups, and/or targeted geographical areas – giving special attention to populations who are denied access to school or who have only very elementary literacy skills – including consideration of gender, age, languages, the unemployed, migrants, the disabled, etc. Regarding gender, it should be noted that targeting women is not the same as promoting gender balance or gender equality. To do this, the subject of gender equality needs to be included in the curriculum or in the very objectives of the programme (Lind, 2008: 131).

  • DEFINITION

    A simple measurement of the existing disparities between girls and boys in education in a given country can be obtained by calculating the ‘gap’ regarding certain indicators (such as primary intake, drop out or completion rates e.g.) and national average values for selected indicators.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Except for the Nordic countries, unadjusted odds results show that participation tends to be slightly higher among men. This result is probably due to the interaction between gender, age and educational attainment. For example, there is a strong gender gap in educational attainment among older generations. In the countries considered, however, the educational attainment levels of women are catching up with those of men (and in some countries are overtaking them), especially among younger generations (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Purely a numerical concept. Reaching gender parity in education implies that the same proportion of boys and girls - relative to their respective age groups - would enter the education system and participate in its different cycles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Women make up almost two-thirds of the total [of illiterate adults], and there has been no progress in reducing this share since 1990. Of the 61 countries with data, around half are expected to achieve gender parity in adult literacy by 2015, and 10 will be very close (UNESCO, 2014: 4).

  • DEFINITION

    Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator. A GPI between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates parity between the genders. A GPI below 0.97 indicates a disparity in favour of males. A GPI above 1.03 indicates a disparity in favour of females.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Worldwide, the Gender Parity Index (GPI) for adult literacy improved significantly between 1970 and 2000-2004, especially in the Arab states (from 0.34 to 0.69), East Asia and the Pacific (from 0.62 to 0.92), sub-Saharan Africa (from 0.49 to 0.76) and South and West Asia (from 0.40 to 0.66). In Latin America and the Caribbean, gender parity in adult literacy rates has almost been achieved, standing at 0.98 (Lind, 2008: 27).

  • DEFINITION

    A Geographical Information System is a computer program which combines two databases. The first one holds numerical data and is as such very similar to the information base you will find in a programme such as Dbase or Access. In the case of an education system, these would be the ‘traditional’ education management data on schools, teachers and students. The second database files geographic data, such as the location of schools, the boundaries of districts, the location of villages and cities, of roads, rivers and mountains, and other relevant geographical characteristics. The GIS links these two sets so that statistical data can be presented not only as tables and graphs but also as maps, which helps the reader to look for spatial patterns (Attfield, Tamiru, Parolin and De Grauwe, 2001: 9)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Information collection has become needs-driven, and the capacity to process, analyse, share, and disseminate information has been improved, reducing overlap in activities. New data visualization techniques, including mapping and geographic information systems (GIS), have improved decision-making processes. Lastly, it has enabled managers to use information at the policy and implementation levels, and has led to better coordination and resource allocation (Arefee, 2011: 92).

  • DEFINITION

    Calculates the utilisation rate of premises in an attempt to maximise use. G.U.R. = G.U.R. X S.U.R. = [(number of instructional periods taught/theoretical number of periods) x (average number of pupils per class/classroom capacity)] x 100. The overall utilisation rate (OUR) combines both the time utilisation rate and the space utilisation rate The higher the rate, the greater the utilisation of the premises.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If the school-age population moves closer to the city center and to employment centers (reverse sprawl movement), due to increasing gas price, centrally located schools will experience rapid enrollment growth and a pressing need for capacity expansion, while schools located in the periphery will tend to have a lower-than-one utilization rate (Delmelle, Thill, Peeters and Thomas, 2014: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    GNP divided by the total population at mid-year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Figure 2.17 displays a scatter plot of the GPIs of GER against GNP per capita. Striking patterns obtain. First, gender disparities favouring boys are found almost exclusively in low-income countries: GERs for males exceed those for females by more than 10 percentage points only in countries with GNP per capita of less than PPP US$3,800 (with two exceptions: Equatorial Guinea and Turkey) (UNESCO, 2006: 56).

  • DEFINITION

    Grade repetition occurs when students begin a new school year in the same grade as the previous year, instead of moving to a higher grade (Brophy, 2006: 1).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In SACMEQ no attempt has been made to test an age group, simply as part of the age group is not in school at all and partly due to the widespread occurrence of grade repetition (Postlethwaite, 2004: 82).

  • DEFINITION

    The value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year. GDP can be measured by adding up all of an economy’s (a) income (wages, interest, profits and rents) or (b) expenditure (consumption, investment and government purchases) plus net exports (exports minus imports). Both results should be the same because one person’s expenditure is always another person’s income, so the sum of all incomes must equal the sum of all expenditures.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Latin America, few countries are in a position to adjust to the challenges of the emerging situation. Throughout the last decade of the twentieth century, the yearly increase in gross domestic product was hardly more than 3 per cent, just one percentage point higher than in the ‘wasted decade’ of the 1980s (Vaillant, 2005: 35).

  • DEFINITION

    Total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the official age group corresponding to this level of education. The GER can exceed 100% because of early or late entry and/or grade repetition.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the Republic of Moldova, where there has been a concerted effort to expand pre-primary education, the gross enrolment ratio of children aged 3 to 6 increased from 43% in 2000 to 77% in 2011 (UNESCO, 2014: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    Total number of new entrants to a given grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official school entrance age for that grade.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Gross intake to the last grade in Senegal was higher, at 63% in 2011, showing that it can overestimate progress towards completion. An indicator in the spirit of the expected cohort completion rate provides a more accurate picture of completion, and so is more appropriate for measuring progress towards post-2015 goals (UNESCO, 2014: 58).

  • DEFINITION

    The value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year (gross domestic product) plus income that residents have received from abroad, minus income claimed by nonresidents. GNP may be much less than GDP if much of the income from a country’s production flows to foreign persons or firms. If the people or firms of a country hold large amounts of the stocks and bonds of firms or governments of other countries, and receive income from them, GNP may be greater than GDP.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Turn away from welfare-state policies with their corporatist overtones, and towards the private market. Part of this shift results from voters’ perception of the declining power of the state to influence markets in an increasingly global economy (Castells, 1997). But part comes from a major effort by corporations to raise the share of private profits in gross national product (Carnoy, 1999: 35).