Glossary

glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    The understanding that women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development.

    UNESCO. A Guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Policies that address gender equality and equity in teacher education and training, support and retention should be at the heart of national education reforms, policies and planning. Since the 1960s a number of initiatives have been taken up to address issues of gender equality so as to ensure that women are both contributors to and beneficiaries of the development process. These include undertaking assessments, formulating various international and regional policy instruments signed and ratified by States, and developing action plans and strategies, particularly at country levels (UNESCO, 2015: 28).

    UNESCO. A Guide for gender equality in teacher education policy and practices. Paris: UNESCO, 2015.

  • DEFINITION

    Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator. A GPI between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates parity between the genders. A GPI below 0.97 indicates a disparity in favour of males. A GPI above 1.03 indicates a disparity in favour of females.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Worldwide, the Gender Parity Index (GPI) for adult literacy improved significantly between 1970 and 2000-2004, especially in the Arab states (from 0.34 to 0.69), East Asia and the Pacific (from 0.62 to 0.92), sub-Saharan Africa (from 0.49 to 0.76) and South and West Asia (from 0.40 to 0.66). In Latin America and the Caribbean, gender parity in adult literacy rates has almost been achieved, standing at 0.98 (Lind, 2008: 27).

  • DEFINITION

    A Geographical Information System is a computer program which combines two databases. The first one holds numerical data and is as such very similar to the information base you will find in a programme such as Dbase or Access. In the case of an education system, these would be the ‘traditional’ education management data on schools, teachers and students. The second database files geographic data, such as the location of schools, the boundaries of districts, the location of villages and cities, of roads, rivers and mountains, and other relevant geographical characteristics. The GIS links these two sets so that statistical data can be presented not only as tables and graphs but also as maps, which helps the reader to look for spatial patterns (Attfield, Tamiru, Parolin and De Grauwe, 2001: 9)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Information collection has become needs-driven, and the capacity to process, analyse, share, and disseminate information has been improved, reducing overlap in activities. New data visualization techniques, including mapping and geographic information systems (GIS), have improved decision-making processes. Lastly, it has enabled managers to use information at the policy and implementation levels, and has led to better coordination and resource allocation (Arefee, 2011: 92).

  • DEFINITION

    Global Citizenship Education (GCED) aims to empower learners of all ages to assume active roles, both locally and globally, in building more peaceful, tolerant, inclusive and secure societies. GCED is based on the three domains of learning - cognitive, socio-emotional and behavioural: Cognitive: knowledge and thinking skills necessary to better understand the world and its complexities; Socio-emotional: values, attitudes and social skills that enable learners to develop affectively, psychosocially, and physically and to enable them to live together with others respectfully and peacefully; Behavioural: conduct, performance, practical application and engagement. The key learning outcomes, key learner attributes, topics and learning objectives suggested in GCED are based on the three domains of learning mentioned above. They are interlinked and integrated into the learning process.

    UNESCO website

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While civic education can be seen as education about citizenship, citizenship education is far more concerned with education through citizenship and for citizenship (Kerr, 2002: 216). In contrast to civic education, which focuses very much on education that reinforces the existing structures of government and political culture, citizenship education, as described by Kerr, has the potential to address issues of diversity through the ideal values of citizenship education outlined above. Whether this is achieved depends very much on its implementation (Inglis, 2008: 106).