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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    A preliminary study to accumulate and analyse the information required for realistic programme planning.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In order to offer such programmes, in many cases an international school would need to be formally authorized to do so. In the case of the IB, for instance, three stages have to be successfully completed before a school can be authorized for any of its programmes: a feasibility study (where teachers and administrators undertake IB-approved professional development); a trial implementation period of at least 12 months, during which the school will be visited and supported by an IB representative; and an authorization visit, where a judgement is made about the extent to which the school is suitably prepared to offer the programme (Hayden and Thompson, 2008: 72).

  • DEFINITION

    [Grant] awarded to continue studies to an advanced level.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The project targeted low-income students in rural areas. Students must have completed lower secondary education (Mathayom 3) in rural schools. Family income, less than 50,000 baht per year, was chosen as an admission criterion. Furthermore, students are provided free education and accommodation and benefit from a fellowship (equivalent to US$ 1,100 per year) (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 287).

  • DEFINITION

    Fixed costs, in economic terms, are independent of the volume of production. In any event, they are borne by the producer, whatever the latter's level of activity. Examples are rent, insurance, current maintenance of equipment and facilities, payment of interest, and other overhead.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For on-line distance education (c), the fixed costs are higher than for face-to-face teaching, but lower than for mass-media (Bates, 2001: 128).

  • DEFINITION

    A language not typically spoken in the local or national context, even though it may be taught as a school subject (Honeyman, 2014).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Employers are also likely to value vocational qualifications more if they contain some core general, academic skills that all employees should possess, for example mathematics, the national language, and in some cases a foreign language (McIntosh, 2008: 79).

  • DEFINITION

    Education provided in the system of schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions that normally constitutes a continuous 'ladder' of full-time education for children and young people, generally beginning at age five, six or seven and continuing up to 20 or 25 years of age. In some countries, the upper parts of this 'ladder' are consituted by organized porgrammes of joint part-time employment and part-time participation in the regular school and university system: such programmes have come to be known as the 'dual system' or equivalent terms in these countries.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Competency-based standards focus on the appropriate and effective application of knowledge, skills and attitudes. They emphasize the relationship between formal education and work skills – the ability to apply relevant knowledge appropriately and effectively in the profession (Martin and Stella, 2007: 71). , The history of formal education in Ethiopia goes back to the fourth century and is associated with the foundation of church schools (Pankhurst, 1958), followed by Koranic schools in the seventh century. Modern education officially commenced in 1908 with the opening of Menelik II School in Addis Ababa, marking a significant step in the history of education in Ethiopia (Pankhurst, 1962; Tekeste, 1990). By 1925, the imperial government recognized education’s role in modernizing the country and in attaining standards set by the international community, and thus made it a national priority (Oumer, 2009).

  • DEFINITION

    Formative evaluation intends to improve performance, most often conducted during the implementation phase of projects or programmes (UNDP, 2009: 137).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Recommendations to advance coaching evaluation research include the creation of collaborative partnerships between the evaluation stakeholders (client, coach, client’s organization, and coaching organization) to facilitate the conducting of systematic formative evaluations, the collection of multi-source and multi-level data, and the inclusion of distal outcomes in evaluation plans (Ely et al, 2010: 3)., Formative evaluation in Guinea is provided by evaluators who make three visits per year to each funded team and many formal conferences and workshops serve to train teachers, facilitators, evaluators, regional co-ordinators and jury members for roles in the programme (Martin and Stella, 2007: 116).

  • DEFINITION

    A funding formula is an agreed rule for allocating resources to operational units such as schools that is universally applied to all [units] (Levačić and Downes, 2004: 20).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    An analysis of almost 200 urban and rural districts in the Oromiya region and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region showed that the introduction of formula-based funding led to declines in inequality between districts not only in terms of funding per student but also in terms of enrolment outcomes (UNESCO, 2014: 60). , The SGB is primarily a formula-based funding model, which consists of a base element for all schools, together with an equity element based on the characteristics of the students enrolled (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 79).

  • DEFINITION

    A specification of the way in which the frequencies of members of a population are distributed according to the values of the variates which they exhibit. For observed data the distribution is usually specified in tabular form, with some grouping for continuous variates. A conceptual distribution is usually specified by a frequency function or a distribution function.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In view of the uncertainty of the time estimates, this information is given for comparison only. A more useful estimate of the time burden of seizures and post-seizure coma is given by expressing the data in a frequency distribution (table 3), and comparing GS and FS (post-seizure coma was reported to follow some FS) but excluding atonic and absence GS (Duggan, 2013: 616). , Wealth dispersion can also be described using frequency distributions, cumulative distribution functions, Lorenz curves, and quantile-based measures such as percentile ratios and the percentage of wealth held by the richest 1% of the population (OECD, 2013: 178).

  • DEFINITION

    Frequency tables present descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, range, percentage/proportion distribution, etc.) in simple numeric form (Hite, 2001: 83).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The data were provided in multi-dimensional frequency table format combining deaths and population exposure, and are divided by sex, five-year age groups, educational levels and several other categories over the period 1971 to 2000 (Shkolnikov et al., 2012 : 373)

  • DEFINITION

    Calculated in person-years. The unit for the measurement of full-time equivalence is a full-time teacher. The full-time equivalence of part-time teachers is determined by calculating the ratio of their hours worked to the statutory hours worked by a full-time teacher during the school year. For example, a teacher who works one-third of the statutory hours of a full-time teacher equals one-third of a full-time equivalent teacher.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Full-time teachers who receive additional contracts/remuneration to perform additional teaching tasks should be counted only once, as a full-time teacher, but with a full-time equivalence factor greater than one. The conversion to FTEs is often difficult for non-teaching personnel. Some countries collect data on the number of contracted hours worked in a typical week in certain categories of non-teaching staff, which are then converted into FTEs (OECD, 2004: 51).

  • DEFINITION

    A person is functionally literate/illiterate who can/cannot engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning of his or her group and community and also for enabling him or her to continue to use reading, writing and calculation for his or her own and the community’s development. (Definition originally approved in 1978 at UNESCO’s General Conference, and still in use today.)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although the Work Oriented Adult Literacy Programme did not achieve the success expected – it was, after all, an experimental and pioneering effort – it did help to establish more firmly the principle of linking literacy instruction with uses directly relevant to the adult learner. Indeed, the phrase ‘functional literacy’ remains very much in use. The question for the educational planner – whether a government official or a member of a voluntary body – is what uses or functions will be relevant to which groups of adult learners? (Oxenham, 2008: 62). , Out-of-School Programme (OSP): This programme is aimed at providing more than just literacy training for the adolescent population who missed out on basic education. It proposes the replacement of the present OSP by restructuring the age group of 8-14 year olds to 11-14. It has been concluded that in order to provide functional literacy, education must take place in a broad context of life skills and labour market demand. The curricula will thus be revised to match the needs of the adolescent age group and to provide functional literacy and skills for life and the labour market. The duration of the OSP course will remain two periods of nine months over two years (Tuladhar, 2004: 51).