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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    [Early childhood] encompasses a number of distinct sub-stages, each of which presents particular needs: 1) Pregnancy and peri-natal: prenatal care, attended births, registration, postnatal care ; 2) 0 to 3: parent education, early stimulation and nutrition interventions, home-based care, crèches; 3) 3 to 6: parent education, preschool; 4) 6 to 8: transition to formal education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the book ‘How nations serve young children’, Olmstedt and Weikart (1989) brought together the histories of early childhood in 14 countries, ranging from Nigeria to China to Germany (Weikart, 2000: 18).

  • DEFINITION

    Early childhood education provides learning and educational activities with a holistic approach to support children’s early cognitive, physical, social and emotional development and introduce young children to organized instruction outside of the family context to develop some of the skills needed for academic readiness and to prepare them for entry into primary education (ISCED-P level 0) [...]. There are two categories of ISCED level 0 programmes: early childhood educational development and pre-primary education. The former has educational content designed for younger children (in the age range of 0 to 2 years), whilst the latter is designed for children from age 3 years to the start of primary education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A new era of early childhood education began with the founding of the People’s Republic of China. In the 1950s, the task of kindergartens became the care and education of young children under the education principle of New Democracy. The purpose of kindergartens was to foster healthy development in children before primary school, as well as to lighten mothers’ child-care burdens so that they could take part in political, productive, cultural, and educational activities. In January and June of 1955, respectively, the State Council and the Ministry of Education delivered documents calling for factories, the army, and governmental and academic institutions to run their own kindergartens, according to their needs and resources, and asking the local Boards of Education to help in providing the teachers (Weikert, 2000: 21).

  • DEFINITION

    Funds set aside or allocated for a special purpose.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Hong Kong, out of a total of 3.05 billion Hong Kong dollars (about 391 million US dollars) earmarked for a non-recurrent grant for the five-year IT in Education Strategic Plan, only 16 per cent was allocated to staff development. The rest of the funding was devoted to setting up an ICT infrastructure in schools (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 72).

  • DEFINITION

    [A] continuous period of education such as those of primary, secondary and higher education.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A cluster of schools in Namibia consists of five to seven schools on average. Most schools are basic education schools, but some also contain upper grades. The school with the most resources and complete education cycle serves as the cluster centre. The cluster centre should be central and accessible to its satellite schools and ideally have access to other commercial services. Cluster centres are the focal point of contact and coordination between cluster schools. They act as meeting places and sites for in-service training, since they contain materials such as audio-visual aids and duplicating facilities (Giordano, 2008: 52). , At the World Conference on Education for All in 1990, most developing countries reaffirmed their commitment to providing universal access to a first cycle of education to their school-age children. As a result, primary enrolments throughout the developing world have grown, fuelled by grants, expanded lending and by substantial domestic allocations of resources. Little attention was paid at the conference to the consequences of enrolment expansion in relation to the resources needed for secondary-schools. However, it was clear then that in many developing countries secondary school participation rates could not grow rapidly without changes in the structure and nature of their financing (Lewin and Caillods, 2001: 1).

  • DEFINITION

    A system of monetary grants which can be used to pay for a period of education in a school or institution chosen by the candidate or his/her parents or guardians

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Option 1 is a ‘generous’ voucher programme. It allows for the provision of vouchers to all students which can be redeemed at all schools, and where the schools can admit any students they wish. Religious schools, distance learning, home schooling and cyber schools are all possible options to a family that receives a voucher. Option 1 is also very generous in terms of financing: the value of the voucher is equivalent to the amount spent in the public sector on education, it is applied to all students at a flat rate regardless of family circumstance, and it can be topped-up with additional payments if the family so desires (Belfield and Levin, 2003: 61)., Toutefois, depuis la deuxième moitié des années 2000, les effets négatifs de la politique de dérégulation se sont avérés, tels que l’aggravation de l’inégalité d’accès aux écoles, alors que les résultats des réformes dérégulatrices ont été peu satisfaisants. La critique à l’égard du néolibéralisme sur le terrain de l’école était perceptible, même au sein du parti politique au pouvoir. L’idée d’introduire un système de « chèque scolaire », promu notamment par Milton Friedman aux États-Unis, fut pratiquement abandonnée, au vu des résultats médiocres à l’étranger (Oba, 2014).

  • DEFINITION

    The educational deprivation indicator measures the resources available for children’s learning. Fifteen-year-old children are considered deprived when they have fewer than four of eight basic items. The eight items include a desk to study, a quiet place to work, a computer for schoolwork, educational software, an internet connection, a calculator, a dictionary, and school textbooks (OECD, 2009: 35).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For instance in the material well-being domain Bulgaria and Romania are included via the deprivation measures derived from PISA 2009. In both countries very high levels of child educational deprivation are experienced. We can predict that Slovakia, which performs poorly in terms of deprivation outcomes but well in terms of worklessness and poverty to give a middling score, will drop ranks on this domain if Bulgaria and Romania are excluded (Bradshaw and Richardson, 2009: 345).

  • DEFINITION

    Advising pupils or students on their educational progress, on career opportunities, or personal difficulties or anxieties.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Career information, guidance and counselling services are intended to assist individuals with their career management. They often overlap with other forms of personal services, such as job placement, personal counselling, community-based personal mentoring, welfare advice and educational psychology. Frequently, these other services are delivered by people who also deliver career information, guidance and counselling, but there are often separate guidance services that do not provide career information, guidance or counselling (UNESCO, 2002: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    [The] resources [which] need to be provided [for schools] : teachers, a school building, a classroom, equipment, school furniture and textbooks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The primary concern of these stakeholders is the provision or production of the inputs to the education process. Because of economies of scale, most of these Producers are national organizations, even in countries with a high degree of decentralization. In the USA, in which school districts can use whatever textbook they want, most districts buy complete sets covering all grades from one of five national publishers (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 79).

  • DEFINITION

    Macro-planning [in education] focuses on the broad dimensions of the system and its relationships with the economy and society (Coombs, 1970: 55)

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Increased private non-state engagement was encouraged by macro-planning processes and frameworks that were enthusiastic about such involvement, particularly through public-private partnerships (PPPs) (Srivastava, 2014).

  • DEFINITION

    An EMIS can be defined as ‘a system for the collection, integration, processing, maintenance and dissemination of data and information to support decision-making, policy-analysis and formulation, planning, monitoring and management at all levels of an education system. It is a system of people, technology, models, methods, processes, procedures, rules and regulations that function together to provide education leaders, decision-makers and managers at all levels with a comprehensive, integrated set of relevant, reliable, unambiguous and timely data and information to support them in completion of their responsibilities’ (UNESCO, 2008: 101).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where there has been widespread disruption of education systems, it will be necessary to start with collection and analysis of basic statistics, and to elaborate a more sophisticated EMIS when resources (computers, software, skilled personnel) are in place, and field staff have been trained in data collection (IIEP, 2010: 155)

  • DEFINITION

    In the broadest sense, micro-planning covers all planning activities at sub-national level; that is, regional, local and institutional. Planning involves the future and has to do with the organisation and management of resources so as to enable the successful attainment of the set goals (…). Micro-planning is defined by its relationship with macro-planning. It is the expression of a desire to improve the operation of the education system by strengthening the planning work done at regional and local levels. It is a planning process that focuses on local characteristics and needs and builds local capacities. Micro-planning seeks to reach the objectives set at national level by assuring greater equality in the distribution of educational services, a better fit between these services and the needs of local communities, and the more efficient use of available resources. Micro-planning requires the participation of local communities in the planning process and this involvement can be a key to the success of the planned reforms at local level.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Micro-planning and information systems must be amended to better capture rural issues and trends. Developing access in an appropriate way requires reliable data on out-of-reach children. Remote and school-less areas are often not adequately covered in government surveys (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 396).

  • DEFINITION

    From the educational planner's point of view, output of given education cycle is defined as the number of pupils who successfully complete that cycle.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This assessment led the Hungarian authorities in the 1960s to set up a system based on a rather different approach to that used in the previous decade. The new system merely involved the mechanical matching of educational output to manpower needs. It adopted a comprehensive socio-economic approach covering a long period (15-20 years) and was largely based on demographic data to avoid imbalance between the long-term trends displayed by the education system, the economy and society. Hungary thus shifted from rigid, directive planning to more flexible and indicative planning (Bertrand, 2004).

  • DEFINITION

    Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society (Coombs, 1970: 14).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the beginning of the 1960s, educational planning was seen as a must for the newly independent countries in order to allow them to move ahead quickly and systematically with their human resource development. Planning Units were set up in Ministries of Education but were highly dependent on external expertise (IIEP, 2010: 9).

  • DEFINITION

    Official statements of goals to which the system of education is directed. 

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Lack of capacity is a major constraint to the development of education in South Sudan. UNICEF has helped provide education there since 1994 and is now supporting the development of a comprehensive national education policy and strategic plan for the government of the new Republic of South Sudan (Sigsgaard, 2013: 4). , The effective use of ICTs in colleges and tertiary institutions is essential if SIDS are to survive and prosper in the rapidly globalizing knowledge societies. Ministries of education need to ensure that active and effective ICTs in education policies are developed and implemented. This will require adequate resourcing; change in curriculum in education and in teacher training; the development of capabilities in ministries of education in ICT management; the establishment of ‘schoolnets’ to pool resources and improve access; and effective networking regionally and internationally where very significant developments are taking place (Chandra, 2010: 5).

  • DEFINITION

    Regions, localities, etc., in need of special educational action.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The concrete design of the policy therefore needed to be determined at a decentralised level and should fall under the administrative responsibility of the municipalities or priority areas (areas requiring urgent attention with respect to educational disadvantages) (Driessen, 2000: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Applicability of what is taught to the needs and interest of students and society.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Relevance, in turn, is likely to produce higher levels of student involvement or engagement in learning (Anderson, 2004: 61).

  • DEFINITION

    Effects of the associated problems of repetition and dropping out.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Ideally, separate cost-benefit calculations should be made for dropouts, repeaters and those who complete a course in the minimum time. For despite the implications of the word ‘wastage’, it is likely that even an uncompleted course may yield some economic benefits that must be compared with the costs of one or two years’ education (Woodhall, 2004: 33).

  • DEFINITION

    Used to assess the accuracy of a multi-stage sample. The effective sample size (is) the size of a simple random sample that has the same accuracy as the multi-stage sample design.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    However, SACMEQ acknowledged that the effective sample (after taking cognisance of cluster effects in sample design) was smaller for South Africa than is the norm: “In the SACMEQ II Project, two school systems, South Africa and Uganda, fell far below the required target of an effective sample size of 400 pupils. In South Africa the values were 185 and 230 for reading and mathematics, respectively …” (Van der Berg, 2008: 8).

  • DEFINITION

    Although the term efficiency was coined by economists, it applies to all spheres of planned activities directed towards given objectives. In any activity, it should be possible to define one’s objectives, or, in other words, the output expected from that activity. To achieve the objectives thus defined, an individual or organisation has certain resources or inputs available and will seek to employ them in such a manner as to produce the desired outputs with minimum cost and effort. Efficiency is thus defined as the optimal relationship between inputs and outputs. An activity is being performed efficiently if a given output is obtained with a minimum of input, or, conversely, if a given input yields maximum output.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There are few really persuasive efficiency studies of multigrade education in developing countries (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 20).